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We are required to use encryption with SQL Server, so we have enabled ForceEncryption. According to the documentation, if a certificate is not provided, SQL Server will generate its own internal certificate to do the encrypting.

We need to understand what level of encryption this is providing. I think we generally use 2048bit certs.

Which certificate store is the internal/fallback certificate located? And how can we get the encryption level?

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By default, the certificate is located in the registry, at:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.x\MSSQLServer\SuperSocketNetLib

(Where the MSSQL.x is MSSQL.x is a placeholder for the corresponding value of the instance of SQL Server.)

If SQL server cannot find a certificate at that location, it will fall back to searching the certificate store for a certificate with the FQDN of the computer it is installed on. By default, that certificate would be the machine certificate, found in Local Computer -> Personal -> Certificates through the MMC Certificates snap-in.

You would check the key length (and other properties) of this (or any) certificate through the MMC Certificates snap-in, by browsing to it, double clicking on it, and then hitting the Details tab in the ensuing dialogue box that comes up for the certificate.

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