Sometimes you have to just shrug, and for me this is one of those times.
File systems do get corrupted (obscure kernel bugs, subtle hardware incompatibilities, cosmic ray events (yes, really), bad/noisy cabling) and from time to time you really do have to quiesce a system and
fsck the filesystems, just to make sure no such error has happened, or if it has, to tidy up (once a file system gets corrupt, ongoing operation tends to further corrupt it).
How can you know if you lost data? If your backup software allows you to verify the online storage against the last good backup, that can provide a handy check for whether a big chunk of the FS has disappeared. Systems like
tripwire can help, but you need to have had them set up and running already, and in any case it would be odd to run such a thing against the
/home partition. By all means take a look in
/home/lost+found, since any detached content will have been reconnected there by the
If none of that turns anything up, then set a mental flag about "I need to
fsck these file systems more often" and maybe "I don't entirely trust that hardware", and move on.