First take a backup copy of the given pg_hba.conf
sudo tar cvf /var/tmp/mybackup_pg_hba_conf.tar /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf
That way you have the older version ready if you screw up. A nice feature of tar archive is that preserves permissions and directories. So when the pg_hba.conf is broken beyond recognition. You can:
sudo tar xvf /var/tmp/mybackup_pg_hba_conf.tar
This will restore the backup pg_hba.conf from the archive you created earlier.
As for the actual insertion of line:
sudo su -c 'echo "host all all 10.0.2.12 255.255.255.255 trust" >> /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf'
(NOTE: Command edited. Thanks bortzmeyer!)
Should do it. Note that this just appends the line into the pg_hba.conf. If you ever need to change it you have to use an actual editor. Like vi. It's learning curve can be a bit steep, but after you have learned at least the basics you should be quite safe in most every unix-environment you encounter.
Now that I'm back on the track you should next try to restart your postgresql database. On a Centos machine this I believe is done by:
sudo service postgresql restart
or you can just reload configuration without restart:
su - postgres
Now you should be able to access your Centos-machines postrgresql database from 10.0.2.12