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Fairly straightforward question. I need to update my PATH environment variable in Windows Server 2008 Core. Considering there's no GUI, how is this done from the command line?

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up vote 1 down vote accepted

from the Mueller book Administering Windows Server 2008 core - use WMIC

WMIC Environment Where Name="Path" SET VariableValue="C:\Temp;%PATH%

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To make persistent changes use setx.

For example, to add a folder to the end of the current path, use:

SETX Path %Path%;C:\MyFolder

Your change won't be visible in the current cmd.exe session, but it will be in all future ones.

SETX also allows setting system environment variables on remote systems.

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Add /M to set a system wide environment variable. The default behaviour is to set a variable in the current user environment. – TimT May 31 '13 at 13:53

As it has always been done since DOS times:

SET PATH = C:\SomeDir
SET PATH = %PATH%;C:\AnotherDir
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2  
These changes will not persist after the current process exits. – Richard Oct 2 '09 at 8:25

Dealing with the Path variable is sticky as it is a combination of the system Path and user Path variables. The previous answers don't account for this. For example

SETX PATH %PATH%;C:\MyFolder

will set the user Path to the entire current system path, plus user path, and then append ';C:\MyFolder' to that. If I had used SETX /M PATH %PATH%;C:\MyFolder then the system Path will get the current user Path added to it.

Using SETX or SETX /M is fine for any environment variable except the Path. Unfortunately, dealing with the Path variables is a pain as it involves updating registry and to be able to append a new value we must first copy the registry entry into an environment variable, append directory that we are adding to the path, and then write the results back into the registry.

There's another issue which is that the Path variables are stored as REG_EXPAND_SZ strings and it's common for a system path to contain references to %SystemRoot%. This means whatever mechanism you use for reading, manipulating, and then writing the Path variable should ideally not expand anything.

Finally, it's common for there to be no user Path variable meaning the code that updates the Path needs to account for the error you will get if you try to read a variable that does not exist.

Here's some example code that can update the Path by updating the values in the registry.

@echo off
setlocal ENABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION
rem
rem Add c:\bin to the path
rem

rem
rem
rem There are two values we can use for the PATHKEY. The one that starts
rem with HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE sets the path that's used by all processes and
rem users on the system. The PATHKEY that starts with HKEY_CURRENT_USER
rem updates the part of the Path that only visible to processes running
rem under the current user account.
rem
set PATHKEY=HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment
set PATHKEY=HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Environment
set PATHVAR=Path
set TMPFILE=%TEMP%\addpath.txt
set ADDPATH=c:\bin

rem
rem Read the Path value from the registry into a file. I could have coded 
rem this with no temporary file by using:
rem     for /f "delims=" %%i in ('REG QUERY "%PATHKEY%" /v "%PATHVAR%" 2>nul:') do set XLINE=%%i
rem However, having the temporary file was useful for debugging and as 
rem updating the path is something we don't often do we don't care if 
rem doing so is a bit slower. 
rem
REG QUERY "%PATHKEY%" /v "%PATHVAR%" >"%TMPFILE%" 2>nul:
if errorlevel 1 goto :newpath

rem
rem REG QUERY outputs several lines. We only care about the last non-blank line
rem Fortunately, a 'for' loop ignores blank lines.
rem
for /f "delims=" %%i in (%TMPFILE%) do set XLINE=%%i

rem
rem Extract the value from the Path variable. Here's what we expect to see 
rem in XLINE though with with spaces shown as ~ symbols: 
rem
rem    ~~~~Path~~~~REG_EXPAND_SZ~~~~Path-is-here..."
rem
rem See below for other ways we can extract the path value from XLINE.
rem
for /f "tokens=1,2,* delims= " %%i in ("!XLINE!") do set VARNAME=%%i & set VARTYPE=%%j & set XVALUE=%%k

rem
rem Append an element to the Path.
rem
set NEWPATH=!XVALUE!;!ADDPATH!

rem
rem Update the path
rem
REG ADD "%PATHKEY%" /v "%PATHVAR%" /t REG_EXPAND_SZ /d "!NEWPATH!" /f

goto :done


rem
rem The Path variable does not exist and so create it
rem
:newpath
REG ADD "%PATHKEY%" /v "%PATHVAR%" /t REG_EXPAND_SZ /d "!ADDPATH!"
goto :done

rem
rem Delete the temporary file.
rem
:done
del "%TMPFILE%"
endlocal
goto :eof

rem
rem Here are some variations for parsing XLINE to extract the value.
rem

rem
rem Quick and dirty method. It takes advantage of that REG QUERY returns a 
rem line with four spaces, the variable name which we know is four 
rem characters, four spaces, the variable type which we know is 
rem REG_EXPAND_SZ and is 13 characters, four spaces, and then the value. As 
rem some systems may be using REG_SZ Path strings the quick and dirty method 
rem seems like a bad idea. 
rem
set XVALUE=!XLINE:~29!

rem
rem One flaw with the method I used in the code above is that you are 
rem allowed to have spaces in variable names. Here's a slight modification 
rem to the code to support spaces in variable names. It takes advantage of 
rem the fact that REG VIEW always puts four spaces each of the fields. We 
rem first translate instances of four spaces into vertical bars and use that 
rem character as the delimiter when parsing the line. 
rem
rem I could have used any character as the delimiter as long as it's one 
rem that will not appear in the variable name, the variable type, or as the 
rem first character(s) of the variable's value. Some people use a tab here. 
rem I chose not to do that in this example as the tabs are not visible. 
rem
rem The code still has a flaw in that it will fail if the variable name 
rem contains four consecutive spaces.
rem
set XLINE=!XLINE:    =^|!
for /f "tokens=1,2,* delims=|" %%i in ("!XLINE!") do set VARNAME=%%i & set VARTYPE=%%j & set XVALUE=%%k
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