A directory, also commonly called a folder, is a filesystem object used for organizing files and other directories.

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22answers
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rm on a directory with millions of files

Background: physical server, about two years old, 7200-RPM SATA drives connected to a 3Ware RAID card, ext3 FS mounted noatime and data=ordered, not under crazy load, kernel 2.6.18-92.1.22.el5, uptime ...
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votes
6answers
11k views

Meaning of directories on Unix and Unix like systems

I've been using Linux for a couple of years now but I still haven't figured out what the origin or meaning of some the directory names are on Unix and Unix like systems. E.g. what does etc stand for ...
31
votes
2answers
14k views

How to keep the full path with rsync?

When backing up with rsync, How do I keep the full directory structure? For example, the remote server is saturn, and I want to backup saturn's /home/udi/files/pictures to a local directory named ...
30
votes
3answers
102k views

Mount Remote CIFS/SMB Share as a Folder not a Drive Letter

Is there any way to mount a remote CIFS/SMB/SAMBA share as a folder/directory and not as a drive letter. For example, I want this map: \\Server\ShareName -> C:\Folder\ShareName Instead of the usual ...
26
votes
2answers
22k views

Add directory structure to SVN, without files

Is there a way to add a directory structure to an SVN repository without adding the files contained in the folders?
25
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6answers
7k views

Should websites live in /var/ or /usr/ according to recommended usage?

According to a guide on the Linux directory structure, /usr/ is for application files, and /var/ is for files that change (I assume this means "files that belong to the applications"). Is this ...
24
votes
6answers
24k views

How to copy file preserving directory path in Linux?

I have Eclipse projects and ".project" file in them, the directory structure looks like 'myProject/.project'. I want to copy these '.project' files to another directory, but I want the enclosing ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

Why should you run cd . before doing anything?

In this compilation of sysadmin horrors, one of the authors writes, as a rule of thumb: Always do a cd . before doing anything. Why would you want to do that?
22
votes
5answers
8k views

What do these abbreviations stand for?

Some directories are easy to understand the meaning /usr /bin ... But for the next ones, I have no idea. /etc /opt opt for optional? etc for electronic t...... configuration (no idea for t) I ...
22
votes
2answers
17k views

logrotating files in a directories and its subdirectories

Is it possible to get logrotate to consider logfiles in a directory and all its subdirectories? (i.e. without explicitly listing the subdirectories.)
20
votes
10answers
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Linux - What directories should I exclude when backing up a server?

I'm backing up a linux server and storing it on some other server. I started off with a simple rsync -aPh --del server.example.com:/ /mnt/backup Then someone pointed out that I shouldn't back up ...
20
votes
4answers
18k views

Where is a good permanent place to install custom bash scripts?

I'm about to install "leiningen" which is a bash script for the clojure programming language with a lot of usefulness... ...but I'm not sure where it is appropriate to -put- a executable script in ...
19
votes
3answers
27k views

What is the maximum number of files a file system can contain?

Given the current structure of a directory entry on a ext4 file system on Ubuntu, what is the maximum number of files a file system can contain? What is the general method of calculating the maximum ...
15
votes
5answers
25k views

How do I find (or exclude) all directories and sub-directories matching a certain pattern (in Linux)?

I'm trying to use the Linux find command to find all directories and sub-directories that do not have .svn (Subversion hidden folders) in their path. I can only get it to exclude the actual .svn ...
15
votes
4answers
772 views

Ensuring a repeatable directory ordering in linux

I run a hosted continuous integration company, and we run our customers' code on Linux. Each time we run the code, we run it in a separate virtual machine. A frequent problem that arises is that a ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Difference and correct usage for /tmp and /var/tmp

I haven't put much thought into this until now, but it seems odd that there is a /var/tmp and /tmp directories for most of the linux distro's I routinely use ( Ubuntu, Centos, Redhat ). Is there any ...
13
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2answers
5k views

What is the difference between /usr/local/bin & /usr/local/sbin

I wrote a simple script which I want to share with my colleagues. Should it be in /usr/local/bin or /usr/local/sbin? What is the typical usage for these directories?
13
votes
4answers
38k views

How can I set full premissions to a user in a specified dir?

How can I set full permissions to a user in a specified dir in linux?
11
votes
2answers
11k views

What Are The Best Practices For Business Folder Structure?

We've tended in the past towards having departmental folders (Sales, Marketing, etc) on a single share and then adding folders below these ad-hoc as and when they're needed. It's gotten a bit messy - ...
10
votes
5answers
349 views

How do I change to the directory I just moved that file to?

So lets assume I've just done: mv ./myfile /to/some/other/place/ And I now decide I want to follow the file, and go into that directory. Whilst I could head for the mouse, select the text, type ...
9
votes
11answers
84k views

Windows command prompt: how to get the count of all files in current directory?

What command would you use in cmd.exe to find the number of files in the current directory? Is there a powershell option here? Update: I was hoping to avoid dir, as I know there are 10,000+ files in ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

Where to put www directory on Ubuntu?

I'm a bit scared to ask this because I got so many negative votes for simply asking a question last time, but here goes; Where in the Linux (Ubuntu) directory structure is it 'normal' to put public ...
8
votes
7answers
24k views

How do you handle “CMD does not support UNC paths as current directories”?

I am attempting to change directories to a file server such as: cd \\someServer\\someStuff\ However, I get the following error: CMD does not support UNC paths as current directories What ...
8
votes
9answers
10k views

How to solve linux subdirectories number limit?

I have a website which will store user profile images. Each image is stored in a directory (Linux) specific to the user. Currently I have a customer base of 30+, which means I will have 30+ folders. ...
8
votes
3answers
8k views

compare 2 directories and copy differences in a 3rd directory

Running ubuntu 12.04, I want to compare 2 directories, say folder1/ and folder2/ and copy any files that are different to folder3/. There are also nested files, so matching subdirectories should be ...
8
votes
1answer
7k views

Changing MySQL data directory in Ubuntu Server 10.04

I was getting the following error when trying to change the data directory in ubuntu server 10.04. 100809 19:33:00 [Note] Plugin 'FEDERATED' is disabled. /usr/sbin/mysqld: Can't find file: ...
7
votes
7answers
1k views

Different files of two directories

There are two directories I'd like to compare. I tried diff but it includes the changes inside the files. All I want is something like this file a is just in /A file b is missing in /A file c ...
7
votes
3answers
6k views

Is there a hard limit to the number of files a directory can have? [duplicate]

Wondering if there is a limit to the number of files that can be stored inside a directory, in CentOS 6. There is one particular directory which could potentially have millions of subdirectories. ...
7
votes
5answers
8k views

Windows: How to delete files with a too long name?

I have a problem with delete, I would like to delete some folder which contains a number of files, and I am getting an error like: Cannot delete Folder: The file name you specified is not valid ...
7
votes
3answers
5k views

Un-tar a specific directory inside of a tar

I have the Wordpress tar, latest.tar.gz. Within it is the following structure /wordpress/dirtories/files When I do the following command I would prefer if I could have it unpack starting at ...
7
votes
2answers
17k views

Difference between <Location> and <Directory> Apache directives

I have Zend Server installed and noticed something like the following was added to my httpd.conf file: <Location /ZendServer> Order Allow,Deny Allow from 127.0.0.1 </Location> Alias ...
7
votes
5answers
6k views

Can't access windows share when in security group assigned to share

I'm a bit stumpped on this one. I created a security group in AD called "special data users" and add myself to it. I then created a share on a server and give that AD security group full access to ...
7
votes
4answers
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Windows Service: Can I configure the current working directory?

By default, Windows services start in the sytem32 directory (usually C:\WINDOWS\system32). Is there a way to set up a different working directory? I am thinking of some registry parameter beneath ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the Apache Directory directive supposed to be relative to the DocumentRoot or not?

Is the Apache Directory directive supposed to be relative to the DocumentRoot or not? I ask in the context of a VirtualHost, but it shouldn't make any difference. In other words, is it supposed to ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Outlook 2007 Infinite Folder Nesting

There's a user on our exchange who moved a subfolder of his inbox into a subfolder beneath that, and now an infinitely nested folder loop has been created (see screenshot). This is prevalent on ...
6
votes
5answers
15k views

Check to see if a directory exists remotely (shell script)

Is there a way to see if a directory exists on a remote server? Perhaps there's a better way, but I'm writing an application deployment script, and I want to create a directory on a remote server if ...
6
votes
3answers
3k views

Fast way of knowing real directory size on linux/bsd

What is the fastest way of computing real directory size? I somehow catch myself needing that a lot. Simply doing: # du -hs /dir Is too slow. Is there any service I could run which would ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Shrink/reset directory size?

Is there a way to shrink a directory entry? My dovecot maildir directories have increased in size from the default 4096 to several megs, and it is messing with disk quotas. The only way that I have ...
6
votes
1answer
6k views

How to disable apache logging when accessing certain directories?

How do I get apache to prevent http requests from being logged on a directory basis? I want to do something alike <IfModule mod_userdir.c> UserDir public_html <Directory ...
6
votes
4answers
246 views

Frequently accessed files and I/O usage

I'm curious, from a performance standpoint, is there an advantage in storing all files in one directory versus having each file in a separate directory? I'm not concerned about organization. Also, ...
6
votes
1answer
7k views

Reverse proxy for a subdirectory in nginx

I want to set up a Reverse proxy on my VPS for my Heroku app (http://lovemaple.heroku.com) So if I visit mysite.com/blog I can get the content in http://lovemaple.heroku.com I followed the ...
5
votes
6answers
4k views

Bash Script To Repair Directory and File Ownership

My client had me deploy some folders out to a bunch of home directories for his customer websites. I did this with a Bash script, but it ended up using the root account permissions. How do I make a ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

How to create union of two directories?

In case of unix/linux, is there a way to create union of two directories without copying or linking manually everything to a single directory?
5
votes
4answers
31k views

Cannot delete folder with rm -rf. Error: device or resource busy

I'm trying to delete /var/www/html but I'm getting this error: rm: cannot remove `html': Device or resource busy
5
votes
2answers
13k views

How to upload a directory recursively to an FTP server by just using ftp or lftp?

I am writing a Linux shell script to copy a local directory to a remote server (removing any existing files). Local server: ftp and lftp commands are available, no ncftp or any graphical tools. ...
5
votes
2answers
7k views

How to count all subfolders in an directory?

How can I count how many folders (including subfolders) I have under an specific folder?
5
votes
4answers
12k views

NTFS Permissions for root share that houses Home Directories Windows Server 2008 R2

I am using the AD Profile Tab to Auto create Home Directories at \server\home so the permissions are automatically created. What should the permissions (NTFS) be for the actual folder that the home ...
5
votes
1answer
633 views

how to pre-create directories on linux for file storage

looking for a way to pre-create directories on linux to be used to store a large number of files. We will be generating file ids using a GUID - I need to keep a copy of these files on a linux web ...
5
votes
3answers
161 views

System to use to maintain a corporate directory

I work for a small-but-growing startup that needs a corporate directory to keep photos and contact info for the company. Eventually we'd like to maybe use this system for login credentials and the ...
5
votes
8answers
2k views

Linux Recursive Delete Keeping The First Dir

First question here, I'm usually on StackOverflow. I need to delete all the contents of a directory, but not the directory itself as I don't have permission to delete that actual directory. This ...