Networking refers to the technologies and techniques that enable the interconnection of devices and applications allowing them to communicate electronically.

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328
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6answers
98k views

How does IPv4 Subnetting Work?

This is a Canonical Question about IPv4 Subnets. Related: How does IPv6 subnetting work and how does it differ from IPv4 subnetting? How does Subnetting Work, and How do you do it by ...
24
votes
2answers
36k views

What causes the 'Connection Refused' message?

This is a Canonical Question about Connection Refused We see a lot of questions to the effect When I try to connect to a system I get a message Connection refused Why is this ?
29
votes
8answers
23k views

Loopback to forwarded Public IP address from local network - Hairpin NAT

This is a Canonical Question about Hairpin NAT (Loopback NAT). The generic form of this question is: We have a network with clients, a server, and a NAT Router. There is port forwarding on the ...
116
votes
7answers
131k views

Setting the hostname: FQDN or short name?

I've noticed that the "preferred" method of setting the system hostname is fundamentally different between Red Hat/CentOS and Debian/Ubuntu systems. CentOS documentation and the RHEL deployment guide ...
55
votes
8answers
50k views

What is “anycast” and how is it helpful?

I'd never heard of anycast until a few seconds ago when I read "What are some cool or useful server/networking tricks?". The wikipedia "Anycast" article on it is quite formal and doesn't really evoke ...
78
votes
2answers
80k views

How do VLANs work?

What are VLANs? What problems do they solve? I'm helping a friend learn basic networking, as he's just become the sole sysadmin at a small company. I've been pointing him at various questions/answers ...
73
votes
17answers
32k views

Switching to IPv6 implies dropping NAT. Is that a good thing?

This is a Canonical Question about IPv6 and NAT Related: How does IPv6 subnetting work and how does it differ from IPv4 subnetting? How can I 'dip my toes' into dynamic IPv6 ...
49
votes
3answers
3k views

Assessing equipment damage following a lightning strike - Should I have planned more?

One of my client's sites received a direct lightning hit last week (coincidentally on Friday the 13th!). I was remote to the site, but working with someone onsite, I discovered a strange pattern of ...
73
votes
3answers
43k views

How does IPv6 subnetting work and how does it differ from IPv4 subnetting?

This is a Canonical Question about IPv6 Subnetting. Related: How does IPv4 Subnetting Work? I know a lot about IPv4 Subnetting, and as I prepare to (deploy|work on) an IPv6 network I ...
62
votes
6answers
52k views

Is X.Y.Z.0 a valid IP address?

Are IP addresses with a 0 in the last octet valid? 10.6.43.0 In my case, I have the the following netmask 255.255.252.0 What about a 0 for the other octets?
3
votes
4answers
951 views

ssh delay when connecting

When connecting to one specific server (running Debian Lenny) it always takes about 5 seconds before it prompts me to enter a password. After login there is no noticable delay anymore. There is also ...
113
votes
4answers
29k views

Should I quit using Ifconfig?

With the servers that mount Infiniband cards, when I use the ifconfig command, I get this warning: Ifconfig uses the ioctl access method to get the full address information, which limits hardware ...
11
votes
2answers
24k views

Load balancing & NAT-ing multiple ISP connections on Linux

I have two internet connections from two different ISPs and I need to balance the traffic originating to and from my network between the two ISPs. I am using Debian GNU/Linux. My set-up is like this -...
19
votes
5answers
86k views

Huge amount of TIME_WAIT connections says netstat

Okay, this is creeping me out - I see about 1500-2500 of these: root@wherever:# netstat Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State tcp 0 0 localhost:...
63
votes
11answers
161k views

How do I find if there is a rogue DHCP server on my Network?

What's the best approach towards determining if I have a rogue DHCP server inside my network? I'm wondering how most admins approach these kinds of problems. I found DHCP Probe through searching, ...
24
votes
5answers
19k views

Geo-DNS providers? [closed]

We've got a website visited by users mainly in the USA and UK. The site will be run on servers in both these locations. We would like to use a DNS service to direct users to the nearest server, but ...
27
votes
6answers
21k views

CIDR for Dummies

I understand what CIDR is, and what it is used for, but I still can't figure out how to calculate it in my head. Can someone give a "for dummies" type explanation with examples?
44
votes
7answers
9k views

Probability of Blade Chassis Failure

In my organisation we are thinking about buying blade servers - instead of rack servers. Of course technology vendors also make them sound very nice. A concern, that I read very often in different ...
14
votes
4answers
5k views

Managing an application across multiple servers, or PXE vs cfEngine/Chef/Puppet

We have an application that is running on a few (5 or so and will grow) boxes. The hardware is identical in all the machines, and ideally the software would be as well. I have been managing them by ...
52
votes
12answers
6k views

What should I pay attention to when I'm buying a network switch?

Since I'm not a hardware expert, I don't know what features make a network switch a good network switch. What should I pay attention, when I'm comparing the different models from different vendors?
18
votes
7answers
16k views

How many VLANs are too few and too many?

We're currently running a netwok of 800+ PCs and 20+ servers, the network infrastucture is along the lines of Core Switch 10Gb-> Area Switch 2GB-> Local Switch 1GB-> Desktop. All running 3Com ...
25
votes
6answers
47k views

What are the implications of having two subnets on the same switch?

Can anyone tell me what some of the implications of having two different subnets on the same switch would be if VLANs are not being used?
5
votes
7answers
33k views

Windows networking performance (SMB/CIFS)

Are there registry settings or other settings available to tune Windows networking (SMB/CIFS) performance? I'm trying to get maximum throughput for large file copy operations but any settings would ...
3
votes
4answers
4k views

What is the correct behaviour when Nameservers Change

I have been having some issues with a certain network supplier over unchanged nameservers making my site invisible to their customers. I wouldnt be bothered except that they are one of the largest ...
8
votes
4answers
3k views

Multi-WAN bonding across different media

I've recently been thinking again about a product that Viprinet provide, basically they've got a pair of routers, one that lives in a datacentre, Their VPN Multichannel Hub and the on-site hardware, ...
85
votes
7answers
126k views

How to forcibly close a socket in TIME_WAIT?

I run a particular program on linux which sometimes crashes. If you open it quickly after that, it listens on socket 49201 instead of 49200 as it did the first time. netstat reveals that 49200 is in ...
18
votes
8answers
90k views

How to test real network throughput between two points?

What are some of the better tools/utilities for testing real bandwidth across a link? In my case I am testing the real throughput across a wifi bridge.
20
votes
7answers
34k views

Force local IP traffic to an external interface

I have a machine with several interfaces that I can configure as I want, for instance: eth1: 192.168.1.1 eth2: 192.168.2.2 I would like to forward all the traffic sent to one of these local ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

linux command to prevent dos attack by using netstat and iptables

I want to DROP more than 200 requests per ip to prevent ddos attack. this is command that i used to detect requests count per ip : netstat -alpn | grep :80 | awk '{print $5}' |awk -F: '{print $(NF-1)}...
7
votes
1answer
21k views

How to troubleshoot latency between 2 linux hosts

The latency between 2 linux hosts is about .23ms. They are connected by one switch. Ping & Wireshark confirm the latency number. But, i dont have any visibility into what is causing this latency. ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

How to add a broadcast address to loopback with ifconfig on a OS/X?

I am trying to use ifconfig to turn on broadcast on my loopback interface. It currently reads: lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384 As you can see, no broadcast address! :(...
237
votes
15answers
17k views

I've inherited a rat's nest of cabling. What now?

You know, you see pictures like below and sort of chuckle until you actually have to deal with it. I have just inherited something that looks like the picture below. The culture of the organization ...
76
votes
8answers
81k views

How much network latency is “typical” for east - west coast USA?

At the moment we're trying to decide whether to move our datacenter from the west coast to the east coast. However, I am seeing some disturbing latency numbers from my west coast location to the east ...
60
votes
19answers
21k views

How do you document a network?

I'm not sure how to ask this question, since I'm not in the field. Say you're a network admin and you leave your job. How does the new guy know where to start?
170
votes
13answers
30k views

Why couldn't MAC addresses be used instead of IPv4|6 for networking? [closed]

I am reading up on TCP/IP and other related protocols and technologies. MAC addresses are described as being (reasonably :) unique, and as having a large possibility space (several hundred trillions), ...
33
votes
8answers
16k views

When/why to start subnetting a network?

Under what conditions does one start to consider subnetting a network? I'm looking for a few general rules of thumb, or triggers based on measurable metrics that make subnetting something that should ...
23
votes
15answers
4k views

Recommend an intrusion detection system (IDS/IPS), and are they worth it?

I have tried out various network-based IDS and IPS systems throughout the years and have never been happy with the results. Either the systems were too difficult to manage, only triggered on well-...
14
votes
8answers
22k views

Troubleshooting a “slow” network

We've all had a complaint that the "network" is "slow" at some point: might be localized to one room (switch) or one computer, might just be Internet (DNS? Browser issue?), might be just one ...
14
votes
6answers
57k views

Windows7 - “The specified network password is not correct.” when the password is in fact correct

I have a samba server setup for some time now. It is a Hardware NAS - which unfortunately does not provide access to the Samba logs. (the exact model of the NAS is called Addonics NAS Adapter ) I ...
8
votes
9answers
2k views

Network monitoring [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What tool do you use to monitor your servers? What software would you recommend to monitor a network? We have a main server which acts as a DNS among other services. And we ...
28
votes
6answers
7k views

Hardware Firewall Vs. Software Firewall (IP Tables, RHEL)

TL;DR My hosting company says IP Tables is useless and doesn't provide any protection. Is this BS? I have two, co-located servers. Yesterday my DC company contacted me to tell me that because I'm ...
20
votes
8answers
19k views

What is the network address (x.x.x.0) used for? [duplicate]

It appears to be common practice to not use the first address in a subnet, that is the IP 192.168.0.0/24, or a more exotic example would be 172.20.20.64/29. The ipcalc tool I frequently use follows ...
19
votes
7answers
3k views

Why don't more organizations use inside-to-inside NAT or similar solutions to allow NAT hairpins?

Inside-to-inside NAT aka NAT loopback solves hairpin NAT issues when accessing a web server on the external interface of an ASA or similar device from computers on the internal interface. This ...
16
votes
6answers
42k views

Domain Controller thinks its on a Public Network

We have a Server 2008 R2 Primary Domain Controller that seems to have amnesia when it comes to working out what kind of network it is on. The (only) network connection is identified at startup as a '...
15
votes
1answer
13k views

Using dnsmasq to resolve all hosts to the same address

I'm running Ubuntu server on a computer used as a wireless AP, but this AP should resolve all DNS requests to an internal IP address rather than actually performing the lookup. I want to do the same ...
5
votes
4answers
11k views

multiple physical interfaces with IPs on the same subnet

I have a linux box with 9 NICs on it, and I want eight of them to have unique addresses on the same subnet, e.g.: ifconfig eth1 192.168.123.1 netmask 255.255.0.0 ifconfig eth2 192.168.123.2 netmask ...
8
votes
3answers
21k views

What is DNS Delegation?

In an answer to my previous question I noticed theses lines: It's normally this last stage of delegation that is broken with most home user setups. They have gone through the process of buying a ...
15
votes
6answers
19k views

How does geography affect network latency?

I have the option of hosting our database/web server at a managed hosting company on the East Coast (US) or one on the West Coast (US). Our company is based out of New York City, and both hosting ...
4
votes
5answers
27k views

Unable to Telnet into port 25 on CentOS PostFix Server

I'm trying to telnet into port 25 on a CentOS server that runs PostFix to test sending email messages from the server. When I try to telnet in from another CentOS box on the same network I get the ...
4
votes
2answers
385 views

How do I force all devices on a network to register with IT before connecting, without vulnerability to Static IP-ing or MAC spoofing?

Context: I'm an admin for a midsize corporate network with several overlapping wireless access points and an ethernet cabling infrastructure. To comply with a security audit, we were recently ordered ...