66
votes
37answers
22k views

What is the single most influential book every sysadmin should read?

For software developers, there are some books you must absolutely read. What is the single most influential book every programmer should read? How about for sysadmins? Is there a similar list of ...
152
votes
26answers
301k views

Using DD for disk cloning

There's been a number of questions regarding disk cloning tools and dd has been suggested at least once. I've already considered using dd myself, mainly because ease of use, and that it's readily ...
124
votes
12answers
129k views

How to set up Nginx as a caching reverse proxy?

I heard recently that Nginx has added caching to its reverse proxy feature. I looked around but couldn't find much info about it. I want to set up Nginx as a caching reverse proxy in front of Apache/...
113
votes
9answers
219k views

What is a good SSH server to use on Windows? [closed]

In my spare time I remotely support my wife's office via VPN into a Windows Server. I am about to purchase a wireless broadband service which doesn't support VPN. I don't want to open up the remote ...
53
votes
3answers
115k views

How can I connect to a Windows server using a Command Line Interface? (CLI)

Especially with the option to install Server Core in Server 2008 and above, connecting to Windows servers over a CLI is increasingly useful ability, if not one that's very widespread amongst Windows ...
42
votes
19answers
8k views

Can anyone recommend a website monitoring service? [closed]

What are people using for website monitoring services? I am referring to a service that I can configure specific hits to my site to monitor if the site is up, and how fast it is responding to the ...
70
votes
12answers
7k views

Exchange server replacement that runs on Linux

I've worked as a sysadmin for some years and what I keep coming back to is that users like Microsoft Outlook and want to use its Exchange features. I have tried my fair share of commercial ...
49
votes
2answers
4k views

vSphere education - What are the downsides of configuring VMs with *too* much RAM?

VMware memory management seems to be a tricky balancing act. With cluster RAM, Resource Pools, VMware's management techniques (TPS, ballooning, host swapping), in-guest RAM utilization, swapping, ...
48
votes
8answers
4k views

Why would I need a firewall if my server is well configured?

I admin a handful of cloud-based (VPS) servers for the company I work for. The servers are minimal ubuntu installs that run bits of LAMP stacks / inbound data collection (rsync). The data is large ...
20
votes
2answers
52k views

How to do the port forwarding from one ip to another ip in same network?

I would like do some NAT in iptables. So that, all the packets coming to 192.168.12.87 and port 80 will be forwarded to 192.168.12.77 port 80. How to do this with iptables? Or Any other ways to ...
28
votes
4answers
8k views

Find out which process is changing a file

I'm trying to find a reliable way of finding which process on my machine is changing a configuration file (/etc/hosts to be specific). I know I can use lsof /etc/hosts to find out what processes ...
16
votes
7answers
24k views

How can I determine what is taking up so much space? [duplicate]

I was using df -h to print out human readable disk usage. I would like to figure out what is taking up so much space. For instance, is there a way to pipe this command so that it prints out files that ...
16
votes
5answers
12k views

ZFS best practices with hardware RAID

If one happens to have some server-grade hardware at ones disposal, is it ever advisable to run ZFS on top of a hardware-based RAID1 or some such? Should one turn off the hardware-based RAID, and run ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Set up BIND9 as DNS Firewall

With OpenDNS now needing one to be on the pro package to have filtering turned on, being on a tight budget, we are in need of free DNS filtering. After reading this link on how to block domains with ...
5
votes
2answers
4k views

3rd party SSD drive in HP Proliant server only shows 3G transfer speed

After receiving some excellent advice in a previous question, we've bought a OWC Mercury Extreme Pro drive for use in our HP Proliant DL360 G7 server. Both the drive, and the P410i array controller, ...
4
votes
2answers
5k views

Non-volatile cache RAID controllers: what kind of protection is there against NVCACHE failure?

The battery back-up (BBU) model: admin enables write-back cache with BBU writes are cached to the RAID controller's RAM (major performance benefit) the battery saves uncommitted and cached data in ...
38
votes
8answers
11k views

What tool do you recommend to track changes on a Linux/Unix server

I manage several Linux servers for clients in several roles like email, caching, web serving, filtering, firewalling/routing, and so on. Since I don't own these computers and just provide remote ...
64
votes
2answers
91k views

SFTP logging: is there a way?

I'm wondering if there is a way to log commands received by the server. It can be all SSH commands, as long as it includes information on commands related to file transfer. I'm having issues with an ...
26
votes
8answers
22k views

A system for distributing SSH public keys

We have many different systems that are managed by several people. We have chosen to use SSH public key authentication to access those systems. This works great, as there is no need to manage or share ...
14
votes
4answers
44k views

iptables - Target to route packet to specific interface?

My home server has two main interfaces, eth1 (a standard internet connection) and tun0 (an OpenVPN tunnel). I'd like to use iptables to force all packets generated by a local process owned by UID ...
53
votes
1answer
48k views

How long does it take for DNS records to propagate?

This is a Canonical Question about DNS Propagation How long does it take for an the various types of records to propagate? Do some propagate faster than others? Why does it take time for DNS ...
41
votes
14answers
6k views

Preventing brute force attacks against ssh?

What tool or technique do you use to prevent brute force attacks against your ssh port. I noticed in my Security logs, that I have millions of attempts to login as various users through ssh. This is ...
28
votes
5answers
35k views

how i can identify which process is making UDP traffic on linux?

my machine is continously making udp dns traffic request. what i need to know is the PID of the process generating this traffic. The normal way in TCP connection is to use netstat/lsof and get the ...
29
votes
2answers
46k views

How to reduce number of sockets in TIME_WAIT?

Ubuntu Server 10.04.1 x86 I've got a machine with a FCGI HTTP service behind nginx, that serves a lot of small HTTP requests to a lot of different clients. (About 230 requests per second in the peak ...
28
votes
8answers
35k views

Why would a server not send a SYN/ACK packet in response to a SYN packet

Lately, we've become aware of a TCP connection issue that is mostly limited to mac and Linux users who browse our websites. From the user perspective, it presents itself as a really long connection ...
23
votes
4answers
9k views

Best Practices for preventing you from looking like a spammer [duplicate]

I'd like to feel more confident setting up mail for my clients with regards to false positives. Here's what I know: SPF records are good, but not every spam filter service/software (SFSS) uses them....
20
votes
5answers
2k views

What am I looking for in a Monitoring Solution?

This is a Canonical Question about Monitoring Software. Also Related: What tool do you use to monitor your servers? I need to monitor my servers; what do I need to consider when deciding on a ...
30
votes
4answers
98k views

How to configure vsftpd to work with passive mode

Whenever I install vsftpd on centos, I only setup the jail environment for the users and rest is default configuration of vsftpd. I create user and try to connect with filezila ftp client but I could ...
26
votes
5answers
20k views

How do I differentiate “fake RAID” from real RAID?

The Ubuntu wiki page on FakeRaid says the following: [A] number of hardware products ... claim to be IDE or SATA RAID controllers... Virtually none of these are true hardware RAID ...
19
votes
6answers
9k views

Avoid linux out-of-memory application teardown

I'm finding that on occasion my Linux box runs out of memory and it starts tearing down random processes to deal with it. I'm curious what administrators do to avoid this? Is the only real ...
30
votes
12answers
61k views

VMware Linux Server — how can you tell if you are a vm or real hardware?

An interesting question. I have logged into a Linux (most likely SuSE) host. Is there some way that I can tell programmatically that I am a VM host or not? Also assume that the vmtools are not ...
34
votes
4answers
17k views

CNAME for top of domain?

Is it possible to set a CNAME record at the top of a domain? (i.e. @ CNAME www, @ CNAME foobar.com., etc.) My ISP says that it's only possible to use CNAME's for subdomains but I've read somewhere ...
13
votes
4answers
911 views

How to schedule server jobs more intelligently than with cron?

I run a job every minute to reindex my site's content. Today, the search engine died, and when I logged in there were hundreds of orphan processes that had been started by cron. Is there another ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Is there a big difference between CentOS 6.4 to 6.2 and should I up/down-grade?

We have two separate managed web servers. One is running CentOS 6.2 and is used as a production environment for a number of sites. The second one runs CentOS 6.4, and hosts some internal applications, ...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

What is Apache's equivalent of Nginx's try_files?

In Nginx there is try_files, a config directive that "checks for the existence of files in order, and returns the first file that is found". I find it very neat to do this location ~* \.(gif|jpe?g|...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Adding a whole IPv6 /64 block to an network interface on debian

I tried adding a whole IPv6 (/64) block to an interface using ip route add local 2001:41d0:2:ad64::/64 dev lo like described here on my Debian server, but I seem to be missing something. If I ping ...
2
votes
4answers
5k views

How can I stop a currently active DDoS attack? [duplicate]

My VPS is under a DDoS attack. I cannot access RDP, and I cannot take it offline, or access it in any way at all. What can I do? They are not trying to bruteforce, just trying to stop access to the ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Can't resolve issue: iptables: No chain/target/match by that name

So I am trying to setup shorewall firewall on my linux vps. The vps is running ubuntu 12.10. When I type $ shorewall check I get this error. iptables: No chain/target/match by that name. ERROR: ...
45
votes
15answers
20k views

iptables Tips & Tricks

I'm sure Linux sysadmins are quite familiar with iptables, the userland interface to the netfilter packet-filtering framework. Now, this "Question" is meant to be a Community Wiki for collecting ...
66
votes
8answers
144k views

What limits the maximum number of connections on a Linux server?

What kernel parameter or other settings control the maximum number of TCP sockets that can be open on a Linux server? What are the tradeoffs of allowing more connections? I noticed while load testing ...
75
votes
3answers
44k views

How does IPv6 subnetting work and how does it differ from IPv4 subnetting?

This is a Canonical Question about IPv6 Subnetting. Related: How does IPv4 Subnetting Work? I know a lot about IPv4 Subnetting, and as I prepare to (deploy|work on) an IPv6 network I ...
90
votes
21answers
19k views

Why should I firewall servers?

PLEASE NOTE: I'm not interested in making this into a flame war! I understand that many people have strongly-held beliefs about this subject, in no small part because they've put a lot of effort into ...
50
votes
9answers
22k views

Company Password Management [closed]

The topic of personal password management has been covered in great detail time after time. This question is aimed at the business or organization that needs to keep track of many unique passwords for ...
62
votes
5answers
19k views

Active Directory explained

If you had to explain Active Directory to someone how would you explain it?
109
votes
7answers
93k views

Can anyone explain precisely what IOWait is?

As much as I have read about iowait, it is still mystery to me. I know it's the time spent by the CPU waiting for a IO operations to complete, but what kind of IO operations precisely? What I am also ...
65
votes
11answers
19k views

Multiple data centers and HTTP traffic: DNS Round Robin is the ONLY way to assure instant fail-over?

Multiple A records pointing to the same domain seem to be used almost exclusively to implement DNS Round Robin as a cheap load balancing technique. The usual warning against DNS RR is that it is not ...
56
votes
15answers
10k views

Are IP addresses “trivial to forge”?

I was reading through some of the notes on Google's new public DNS service: Performance Benefits Security Benefits I noticed under the security section this paragraph: Until a standard system-...
61
votes
2answers
5k views

How should an IT department choose a standard Linux distribution?

There is a lot of community feeling about what Linux distributions are appropriate for production server environments and which aren't, however, a lot of this feeling seems religiously based, and ...
35
votes
5answers
50k views

How do I redirect subdomains to a different port on the same server?

I have some subdomains I want to redirect to specific ports on the same server. Say I have dev.mydomain.com I want dev.mydomain.com to transparently redirect to mydomain.com:8080 and I want to ...
36
votes
9answers
24k views

Why not block ICMP?

I think I almost have my iptables setup complete on my CentOS 5.3 system. Here is my script... # Establish a clean slate iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT ...

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