102
votes
9answers
9k views

Can you mount a network switch upside down?

We just took delivery of a new Avaya 2500 48-port switch, that has 24 PoE ports. The problem is that all the PoE ports are on the left-hand size of the switch, and our PoE device cables can only reach ...
102
votes
8answers
17k views

Best practice: Should I always install a fresh OS for new employees?

I had an argument with a superior about this. Though at first glance the prior user of a laptop only did work in his own documents-folders, should I always install a new OS for the next user or is ...
101
votes
16answers
91k views

Showing total progress in rsync: is it possible?

I have searched for this option already, but have only found solutions that involve custom patching. The fact that it does not show in --help and no more info can be found probably indicates the ...
101
votes
3answers
92k views

Meaning of the buffers/cache line in the output of free

Why does my server show total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 12286456 11715372 571084 0 81912 6545228 -/+ buffers/cache: 5088232 7198224 Swap:...
99
votes
6answers
699k views

What port does SFTP use?

Does SFTP use port 21 or port 22?
98
votes
11answers
110k views

How to zip/unzip files in Powershell?

Is there a one-liner that will zip/unzip files (*.zip) in PowerShell?
97
votes
18answers
11k views

What sysadmin things should every programmer know?

As a programmer, we tend to take sysadmins for granted. The few times I've been without a good sysadmin have really made me appreciate what you guys do. When we're venturing into an environment ...
97
votes
1answer
20k views

Why do I need Nginx and something like Gunicorn?

I'm looking for an overly simplified answer to the following question. I'm trying to build a foundational understanding of how Nginx works alongside something like Gunicorn. Do I need both Nginx and ...
96
votes
10answers
109k views

Shell command to monitor changes in a file - What's it called again?

I know there was a command on Unix that I could use to monitor a file and see changes that are getting written to it. This was quite useful especially for checking log files. Do you know what it is ...
96
votes
14answers
116k views

How to reconnect to a disconnected ssh session

Is there a way to connect to an ssh session that was disconnected? We are having problems with our network connection to a remote site that we are working on separately; however, in the mean time we ...
96
votes
11answers
11k views

Cooling Server Closet - No A/C Is Possible

We're moving into a new office in an old building in London (that's England :) and are walling off a 2m x 1.3m area where the router & telephone equipment currently terminates to use as a server ...
96
votes
10answers
40k views

ssh-agent forwarding and sudo to another user

If I have a server A into which I can login with my ssh key and I have the ability to "sudo su - otheruser", I lose key forwarding, because the env variables are removed and the socket is only ...
96
votes
6answers
25k views

Why is Enterprise Storage so expensive?

This is a Canonical Question about the Cost of Enterprise Storage. See also the following question: What's the best way to explain storage issues to developers and other users ...
95
votes
6answers
201k views

What version of RHEL am I using?

From the shell and without root privileges, how can I determine what Red Hat Enterprise Linux version I'm running? Ideally, I'd like to get both the major and minor release version, for example RHEL ...
95
votes
7answers
43k views

Sudo as different user and running screen

Found out today that running screen as a different user that I sudo into won't work! i.e. ssh bob@server # ssh into server as bob sudo su "monitor" - screen (fails) I have a script that ...
94
votes
4answers
84k views

how to disable SSH login with password for some users?

On Linux (Debian Squeeze) I would like to disable SSH login using password to some users (selected group or all users except root). But I do not want to disable login using certificate for them. edit:...
93
votes
5answers
58k views

Multiple SSL domains on the same IP address and same port?

This is a Canonical Question about Hosting multiple SSL websites on the same IP. I was under the impression that each SSL Certificate required it's own unique IP Address/Port combination. But the ...
93
votes
7answers
23k views

How can the little guys effectively learn and use Puppet?

Six months ago, in our not-for-profit project we decided to start migrating our system management to a Puppet-controlled environment because we are expecting our number of servers to grow ...
93
votes
5answers
261k views

Does Windows have a built-in ZIP command for the command line?

Since Windows Explorer (since at least Windows XP) has some basic support for ZIP files, it seems like there should be a command-line equivalent, but I can't seem to find any sign of one. Does ...
93
votes
6answers
31k views

SSH keypair generation: RSA or DSA?

SSH supports two signature algorithms for key pairs: RSA and DSA. Which is preferred, if any? For RSA, what is the minimum acceptable key length?
93
votes
2answers
17k views

Can you help me with my capacity planning?

This is a Canonical Question about Capacity Planning Related: How do you do Load Testing and Capacity Planning for Web Sites? How do you do Load Testing and Capacity Planning for ...
92
votes
8answers
139k views

How do I create a symbolic link in Windows?

Windows Vista added the ability to create symbolic links to files and directories. How do I create a symbolic link and what are the current consumer and server versions of Windows that support it?
91
votes
2answers
46k views

IPTABLES - Limit rate of a specific incoming IP

I do not wish to limit the rate of a specific service. My goals is to limit rate based solely on the incoming IP address. For example using a pseudo-rule: john.domain.local (192.168.1.100) can only ...
91
votes
8answers
113k views

Dump Microsoft SQL Server database to an SQL script

Is there any way to export a Microsoft SQL Server database to an sql script? I'm looking for something which behaves similarly to mysqldump, taking a database name, and producing a single script ...
90
votes
21answers
19k views

Why should I firewall servers?

PLEASE NOTE: I'm not interested in making this into a flame war! I understand that many people have strongly-held beliefs about this subject, in no small part because they've put a lot of effort into ...
89
votes
11answers
102k views

How to know from which yum repository a package has been installed?

After I have installed a package by yum (with multiple repositories configured), how can I find from which repository it has been installed? If I run yum info package-name (or yum list package-name), ...
88
votes
86answers
15k views

Best system administrator accident [closed]

I'm looking for amusing stories of system administrator accidents you have had. Deleting the CEO's email, formatting the wrong hard drive, etc. I'll add my own story as an answer.
87
votes
13answers
4k views

10 servers to administer and I'm a history major [closed]

Through reasons that don't warrant exhaustive discussion, I find myself in charge of 10 servers: A domain controller-~500 hosts/~350 users IIS web server-This is where we make our money SQL server-...
87
votes
3answers
13k views

Smell of rotten eggs in the server room

A week ago I got the following error on my APC Smart-UPS 1000 which I muted. Warning State: Connect battery Load: 55% Batt: 100% Today, I could smell a sort of sulfur/sulphur/rotten egg smell when ...
87
votes
6answers
36k views

How do I rename a task in Task Scheduled on Windows Server 2008 R2

I have some tasks in the Task Scheduler on Windows 2008 R2. I created them as the admin and I'm logged in as the admin. I have no easy way to rename the tasks. The only way I can is to export the task ...
86
votes
9answers
73k views

How to stop people from using my domain to send spam? [duplicate]

I receive Mailer Daemon messages saying certain emails fail. My domain is itaccess.org which is administered by Google apps. Is there any way I can identify who is sending emails from my domain, and ...
86
votes
7answers
128k views

How to forcibly close a socket in TIME_WAIT?

I run a particular program on linux which sometimes crashes. If you open it quickly after that, it listens on socket 49201 instead of 49200 as it did the first time. netstat reveals that 49200 is in ...
86
votes
8answers
37k views

Recommended LogParser queries for IIS monitoring?

As Stack Overflow grows, we're starting to look closely at our IIS logs to identify problem HTTP clients -- things like rogue web spiders, users who have a large page set to refresh every second, ...
85
votes
13answers
34k views

Why is RAID not a backup?

When someone mentions RAID in a conversation about backups, invariably someone declares that "RAID is not a backup." Sure, for striping, that's true. But what's the difference between redundancy and ...
85
votes
12answers
15k views

What solutions exist to allow the use of revision control for server configuration files? [closed]

In an environment with multiple system administrators, I see a few advantages to adding the server config files into a revision control system. Most notable are the ability to track changes, who made ...
85
votes
8answers
95k views

how to set global PATH on OS X?

I'd like to append to the global PATH variable on OS X so that all user shells and GUI applications get the same PATH environment. I know I can append to the path in shell startup scripts, but those ...
84
votes
9answers
523k views

Command line to list users in a Windows Active Directory group?

Is there a command line way to list all the users in a particular Active Directory group? I can see who is in the group by going to Manage Computer --> Local User / Groups --> Groups and double ...
84
votes
12answers
11k views

Transfer 10TB of files from USA -> UK datacenter

I am migrating my server from the USA to the UK from one data center to another, my host said I should be able to achieve 11 megabytes per second. Operating system is Windows Server 2008 at both ends....
83
votes
7answers
52k views

What does 'set -e' do, and why might it be considered dangerous?

This question has appeared on a pre-interview quiz and it's making me crazy. Can anyone answer this and put me at ease? The quiz has no reference to a particular shell but the job description is for a ...
83
votes
6answers
54k views

How to change an EC2 instance's security group

I have created a new EC2 instance. It got assigned the default security group. I want to change that security group. How?
82
votes
6answers
167k views

List all DNS records in a domain using dig?

My company runs an internal DNS for mycompany.com There is a machine on the network that I need to find, but I’ve forgotten its name. If I could see a list, it would probably jog my memory. How ...
82
votes
11answers
18k views

How bad is it really to install Linux on one big partition?

We will be running CentOS 7 on our new server. We have 6 x 300GB drives in raid6 internal to the server. (Storage is largely external in the form of a 40TB raid box.) The internal volume comes to ...
82
votes
3answers
52k views

What is archive mode in rsync?

I know you can use -a or --archive to activate archive mode when using rsync. Unfortunately, I have no idea what archive mode is supposed to do, and the man page is not at all explicit about what this ...
82
votes
2answers
26k views

Amazon EC2 terminology - AMI vs. EBS vs. Snapshot vs. Volume

I have been poking around Amazon EC2, and am a little confused on some of the terminology. Specifically with regard to AMI, snapshots and volumes, and an EBS Please correct me if I am wrong, or fill ...
82
votes
5answers
32k views

How do you do load testing and capacity planning for web sites?

This is a canonical question about capacity planning for web sites. Related: Can you help me with my capacity planning? How do you do Load Testing and Capacity Planning for Databases? ...
82
votes
8answers
12k views

How can a single disk in a hardware SATA RAID-10 array bring the entire array to a screeching halt?

Prelude: I'm a code-monkey that's increasingly taken on SysAdmin duties for my small company. My code is our product, and increasingly we provide the same app as SaaS. About 18 months ago I moved ...
81
votes
13answers
25k views

Are networks now faster than disks?

This is a software design question I used to work on the following rule for speed cache memory > memory > disk > network With each step being 5-10 times the previous step (e.g. cache ...
81
votes
6answers
158k views

Boot and Install Windows from a USB thumb drive

Installing Windows from a thumb drive is vastly superior to burning a copy to a DVD which will fill some landfill somewhere with toxic stuff. Not to mention it's about 50x faster to install Windows ...
80
votes
13answers
34k views

Is Ping a reliable way to check if a server is available?

In my application I am pinging a server and waiting for a response. I am using this to determine whether the server is available and responsive or not. Is this a reliable way of determining ...
80
votes
6answers
41k views

Fighting Spam - What can I do as an: Email Administrator, Domain Owner, or User?

This is a Canonical Question about Fighting Spam. Also related: How to stop people from using my domain to send spam? What are SPF records, and how do I configure them? There are so ...

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