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We want to set up a computer lab with about 10-15 PCs and to run Ubuntu at a college. Then, we want to install programs mainly for engineering/research/numerical computations. To ease the management we want to install all programs in one computer and share them with the rest via NFS.

I know how to share folders using NFS as well as how to mount them from the other machines. My question: do applications in Linux get installed in specific/standard directories (e.g. /usr) that I need to share? The plan is to install a plethora of applications including GNU octave, OpenFOAM, teTeX, kile, Python libraries like SciPy, Matplotlib, ...) R, PSPP, ...

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    Those are five question in one. If you need one answer, just ask one question. Serverfault is not here to explain how everything works, starting with adam and eve. Ask a question, get a answer. – bjoster Feb 11 '20 at 14:17
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what directory do we need to share?

This depends completely on your software.

Are /usr and /home adequate?

This depends completely on your software.

or do I need also others like /lib, /lib64, /opt ...?

This depends completely on your software.

Also, what options for NFS mount to use?

This depends completely on your software.

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