TL;DR version: Turns out this was a deep Broadcom networking bug in Windows Server 2008 R2. Replacing with Intel hardware fixed it. We don't use Broadcom hardware any more. Ever.
We have been using HAProxy along with heartbeat from the Linux-HA project. We are using two linux instances to provide a failover. Each server has with their own public IP and a single IP which is shared between the two using a virtual interface (eth1:1) at IP: 18.104.22.168
The virtual interface (eth1:1) IP 22.214.171.124 is configured as the gateway for the windows servers behind them and we use ip_forwarding to route traffic.
We are experiencing an occasional network outage on one of our windows servers behind our linux gateways. HAProxy will detect the server is offline which we can verify by remoting to the failed server and attempting to ping the gateway:
Pinging 126.96.36.199 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 188.8.131.52: Destination host unreachable.
arp -a on this failed server shows that there is no entry for the gateway address (184.108.40.206):
Interface: 220.127.116.11 --- 0xa Internet Address Physical Address Type 18.104.22.168 00-26-88-63-c7-80 dynamic 22.214.171.124 00-15-5d-0a-3e-0e dynamic 126.96.36.199 00-21-5e-4d-45-c9 dynamic 188.8.131.52 00-15-5d-00-b2-0d dynamic 184.108.40.206 00-21-5e-4d-61-1a dynamic 220.127.116.11 00-21-5e-4d-2c-e8 dynamic 18.104.22.168 00-21-5e-4d-38-e5 dynamic 22.214.171.124 00-15-5d-00-b2-0d dynamic 126.96.36.199 00-15-5d-0a-3e-09 dynamic 188.8.131.52 ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff static 184.108.40.206 01-00-5e-00-00-16 static 220.127.116.11 01-00-5e-00-00-fc static 18.104.22.168 01-00-5e-00-00-01 static
On our linux gateway instances
arp -a shows:
peak-colo-196-220.peak.org (22.214.171.124) at <incomplete> on eth1 stackoverflow.com (126.96.36.199) at 00:21:5e:4d:45:c9 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-215.peak.org (188.8.131.52) at 00:21:5e:4d:61:1a [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-219.peak.org (184.108.40.206) at 00:21:5e:4d:38:e5 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-222.peak.org (220.127.116.11) at 00:15:5d:0a:3e:09 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-209.peak.org (18.104.22.168) at 00:26:88:63:c7:80 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-217.peak.org (22.214.171.124) at 00:21:5e:4d:2c:e8 [ether] on eth1
Why would arp occasionally set the entry for this failed server as <incomplete>? Should we be defining our arp entries statically? I've always left arp alone since it works 99% of the time, but in this one instance it appears to be failing. Are there any additional troubleshooting steps we can take help resolve this issue?
THINGS WE HAVE TRIED
I added a static arp entry for testing on one of the linux gateways which still didn't help.
root@haproxy2:~# arp -a peak-colo-196-215.peak.org (126.96.36.199) at 00:21:5e:4d:61:1a [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-221.peak.org (188.8.131.52) at 00:15:5d:00:b2:0d [ether] on eth1 stackoverflow.com (184.108.40.206) at 00:21:5e:4d:45:c9 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-219.peak.org (220.127.116.11) at 00:21:5e:4d:38:e5 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-209.peak.org (18.104.22.168) at 00:26:88:63:c7:80 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-217.peak.org (22.214.171.124) at 00:21:5e:4d:2c:e8 [ether] on eth1 peak-colo-196-220.peak.org (126.96.36.199) at 00:21:5e:4d:30:8d [ether] PERM on eth1 root@haproxy2:~# arp -i eth1 -s 188.8.131.52 00:21:5e:4d:30:8d root@haproxy2:~# ping 184.108.40.206 PING 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168) 56(84) bytes of data. --- 22.214.171.124 ping statistics --- 7 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 6006ms
Rebooting the windows web server solves this issue temporarily with no other changes to the network but our experience shows this issue will come back.
Swapping network cards and switches
I noticed the link light on the port of the switch for the failed windows server was running at 100Mb instead of 1Gb on the failed interface. I moved the cable to several other open ports and the link indicated 100Mb for each port that I tried. I also swapped the cable with the same result. I tried changing the properties of the network card in windows and the server locked up and required a hard reset after clicking apply. This windows server has two physical network interfaces so I have swapped the cables and network settings on the two interfaces to see if the problem follows the interface. If the public interface goes down again we will know that it is not an issue with the network card.
(We also tried another switch we have on hand, no change)
Changing network hardware driver versions
We've had the same problem with the latest Broadcom driver, as well as the built-in driver that ships in Windows Server 2008 R2.
Replacing network cables
As a last ditch effort we remembered another change that occurred was the replacement of all of the patch cords between our servers / switch. We had purchased two sets, one green of lengths 1ft - 3ft for the private interfaces and another set of red cables for the public interfaces. We swapped out all of the public interface patch cables with a different brand and ran our servers without issue for a full week ... aaaaaand then the problem recurred.
Disable checksum offload, remove TProxy
We also tried disabling TCP/IP checksum offload in the driver, no change. We're now pulling out TProxy and moving to a more traditional
x-forwarded-for network arrangement without any fancy IP address rewriting. We'll see if that helps.
Switch Virtualization providers
On the off chance this was related to Hyper-V in some way (we do host Linux VMs on it), we switched to VMWare Server. No change.
Switch host model
We've reached the end of our troubleshooting rope and are now formally involving Microsoft support. They recommended changing the host model:
We did that, and we also got some unpublished kernel hotfixes which were presumably rolled into 2008 R2 SP1. No fix.
Replacing network card hardware
Ultimately, replacing the Broadcom network hardware with Intel network hardware fixed this issue for us. So I am inclined to think that the Broadcom Windows Server 2008 R2 drivers are at fault!