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On a separate PC (which has the locally accessible only IP 192.168.1.148), I have 3 containers: docker_compose_ui, docker_compose_web_console & nginx

Two of the containers are listening on ports but have not been forwarded to the host:

docker_compose_ui 5000/tcp
docker_compose_web_console 8888/tcp

Nginx is forwarded:

nginx 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp, :::80->80/tcp

docker_compose_ui & docker_compose_web_console are on network backbone.

nginx is on networks backbone and outward.

Anything on backbone are not meant to be host-forwarded, thus not public accessible.

Anything on outward are meant to be host-forwarded, thus public accessible.

EDIT: To clarify, when I say public, I just meant outward from the host machine, I have not actually forwarded any ports to the internet via my router, yet.

If I inspect the network backbone I can see the IP addresses:

nginx 172.21.0.4/16
docker_compose_ui 172.21.0.2/16
docker_compose_web_console 172.21.0.3/16

If I inspect the network outward I can see the IP address for mginx, 172.22.0.2/16.

If I curl from nginx to docker_compose_ui:

 docker exec nginx curl http://docker_compose_ui:5000

I get a html response and Ok, so docker_compose_ui is both reachable from nginx and resolvable.

If I do docker exec nginx nginx -T I can see that the config is being loaded by nginx (last server directive).

nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful
# configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf:
# /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

user nginx;

# Set number of worker processes automatically based on number of CPU cores.
worker_processes auto;

# Enables the use of JIT for regular expressions to speed-up their processing.
pcre_jit on;

# Configures default error logger.
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log warn;

# Includes files with directives to load dynamic modules.
include /etc/nginx/modules/*.conf;

# Uncomment to include files with config snippets into the root context.
# NOTE: This will be enabled by default in Alpine 3.15.
#include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;

events {
        # The maximum number of simultaneous connections that can be opened by
        # a worker process.
        worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
    # Docker dns resolver
    resolver 127.0.0.11 ipv6=off;
        # Includes mapping of file name extensions to MIME types of responses
        # and defines the default type.
        include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
        default_type application/octet-stream;

        # Name servers used to resolve names of upstream servers into addresses.
        # It's also needed when using tcpsocket and udpsocket in Lua modules.
        #resolver 1.1.1.1 1.0.0.1 2606:4700:4700::1111 2606:4700:4700::1001;

        # Don't tell nginx version to the clients. Default is 'on'.
        server_tokens off;

        # Specifies the maximum accepted body size of a client request, as
        # indicated by the request header Content-Length. If the stated content
        # length is greater than this size, then the client receives the HTTP
        # error code 413. Set to 0 to disable. Default is '1m'.
        client_max_body_size 1m;

        # Sendfile copies data between one FD and other from within the kernel,
        # which is more efficient than read() + write(). Default is off.
        sendfile on;

        # Causes nginx to attempt to send its HTTP response head in one packet,
        # instead of using partial frames. Default is 'off'.
        tcp_nopush on;


        # Enables the specified protocols. Default is TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2.
        # TIP: If you're not obligated to support ancient clients, remove TLSv1.1.
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;

        # Path of the file with Diffie-Hellman parameters for EDH ciphers.
        # TIP: Generate with: `openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/nginx/dh2048.pem 2048`
        #ssl_dhparam /etc/ssl/nginx/dh2048.pem;

        # Specifies that our cipher suits should be preferred over client ciphers.
        # Default is 'off'.
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

        # Enables a shared SSL cache with size that can hold around 8000 sessions.
        # Default is 'none'.
        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:2m;

        # Specifies a time during which a client may reuse the session parameters.
        # Default is '5m'.
        ssl_session_timeout 1h;

        # Disable TLS session tickets (they are insecure). Default is 'on'.
        ssl_session_tickets off;


        # Enable gzipping of responses.
        gzip on;

        # Set the Vary HTTP header as defined in the RFC 2616. Default is 'off'.
        gzip_vary on;


        # Helper variable for proxying websockets.
        map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
                default upgrade;
                '' close;
        }


        # Specifies the main log format.
        log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                        '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                        '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

        # Sets the path, format, and configuration for a buffered log write.
        access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main;


        # Includes virtual hosts configs.
        include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
}

# TIP: Uncomment if you use stream module.
#include /etc/nginx/stream.conf;

# configuration file /etc/nginx/mime.types:

types {
    text/html                                        html htm shtml;
    text/css                                         css;
    text/xml                                         xml;
    image/gif                                        gif;
    image/jpeg                                       jpeg jpg;
    application/javascript                           js;
    application/atom+xml                             atom;
    application/rss+xml                              rss;

    text/mathml                                      mml;
    text/plain                                       txt;
    text/vnd.sun.j2me.app-descriptor                 jad;
    text/vnd.wap.wml                                 wml;
    text/x-component                                 htc;

    image/png                                        png;
    image/svg+xml                                    svg svgz;
    image/tiff                                       tif tiff;
    image/vnd.wap.wbmp                               wbmp;
    image/webp                                       webp;
    image/x-icon                                     ico;
    image/x-jng                                      jng;
    image/x-ms-bmp                                   bmp;

    font/woff                                        woff;
    font/woff2                                       woff2;

    application/java-archive                         jar war ear;
    application/json                                 json;
    application/mac-binhex40                         hqx;
    application/msword                               doc;
    application/pdf                                  pdf;
    application/postscript                           ps eps ai;
    application/rtf                                  rtf;
    application/vnd.apple.mpegurl                    m3u8;
    application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml             kml;
    application/vnd.google-earth.kmz                 kmz;
    application/vnd.ms-excel                         xls;
    application/vnd.ms-fontobject                    eot;
    application/vnd.ms-powerpoint                    ppt;
    application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.graphics      odg;
    application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.presentation  odp;
    application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.spreadsheet   ods;
    application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.text          odt;
    application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation
                                                     pptx;
    application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
                                                     xlsx;
    application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document
                                                     docx;
    application/vnd.wap.wmlc                         wmlc;
    application/x-7z-compressed                      7z;
    application/x-cocoa                              cco;
    application/x-java-archive-diff                  jardiff;
    application/x-java-jnlp-file                     jnlp;
    application/x-makeself                           run;
    application/x-perl                               pl pm;
    application/x-pilot                              prc pdb;
    application/x-rar-compressed                     rar;
    application/x-redhat-package-manager             rpm;
    application/x-sea                                sea;
    application/x-shockwave-flash                    swf;
    application/x-stuffit                            sit;
    application/x-tcl                                tcl tk;
    application/x-x509-ca-cert                       der pem crt;
    application/x-xpinstall                          xpi;
    application/xhtml+xml                            xhtml;
    application/xspf+xml                             xspf;
    application/zip                                  zip;

    application/octet-stream                         bin exe dll;
    application/octet-stream                         deb;
    application/octet-stream                         dmg;
    application/octet-stream                         iso img;
    application/octet-stream                         msi msp msm;

    audio/midi                                       mid midi kar;
    audio/mpeg                                       mp3;
    audio/ogg                                        ogg;
    audio/x-m4a                                      m4a;
    audio/x-realaudio                                ra;

    video/3gpp                                       3gpp 3gp;
    video/mp2t                                       ts;
    video/mp4                                        mp4;
    video/mpeg                                       mpeg mpg;
    video/quicktime                                  mov;
    video/webm                                       webm;
    video/x-flv                                      flv;
    video/x-m4v                                      m4v;
    video/x-mng                                      mng;
    video/x-ms-asf                                   asx asf;
    video/x-ms-wmv                                   wmv;
    video/x-msvideo                                  avi;
}

# configuration file /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/_default.conf:
# This is a default site configuration which will simply return 404, preventing
# chance access to any other virtualhost.

server {
        listen 80 default_server;
        listen [::]:80 default_server;

        # Everything is a 404
        location / {
                return 404;
        }

        # You may need this to prevent return 404 recursion.
        location = /404.html {
                internal;
        }
}

# configuration file /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/docker_compose_ui.conf:
server {
    listen       80;
    #server_name  localhost;
    server_name  _;

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/docker_compose_ui.access.log  main;

    location /docker-compose-ui/ {
        proxy_pass http://docker_compose_ui:5000;
    }

    location /web-console/ {
        proxy_pass http://docker_compose_web_console:8888;
    }

    location /web-console/exec {
        proxy_pass http://docker_compose_web_console:8888;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
    }
}

docker-compose config (two separate files):

--- # docker-compose-ui.yml

version: "3.9"

services:
  docker_compose_ui:
    image: francescou/docker-compose-ui
    container_name: docker_compose_ui
    hostname: docker_compose_ui
    restart: unless-stopped
    working_dir: /opt/docker-compose-projects
    environment:
      - 'WEB_CONSOLE_PATTERN=/web-console/?cid={containerName}&cmd={command}'
    volumes:
      - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock
      - /opt/docker-compose-pojects:/data/docker/docker-compose-ui
    networks:
      - backbone
  web_console:
    image: bitbull/docker-exec-web-console
    container_name: docker_compose_web_console
    hostname: docker_compose_web_console
    restart: unless-stopped
    environment:
      - 'CONTEXT_PATH=/web-console/'
    read_only: true
    volumes:
      - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock
    networks:
      - backbone

networks:
  backbone:
    external: true

--- # nginx.yml

version: "3.9"

services:
  nginx:
    image: nginx:mainline-alpine
    container_name: nginx
    restart: unless-stopped
    volumes:
      - /data/docker/nginx:/etc/nginx
      - /var/log/nginx:/var/log/nginx
      - /var/run:/var/run
      - /var/cache/nginx
    ports:
      - "80:80"
    networks:
      - backbone
      - outward

networks:
  backbone:
    external: true
  outward:
    external: true

Doing http://192.168.1.148/ from my laptop returns the standard "Nginx is installed message".

Why then does http://192.168.1.148/docker-compose-ui/ from my laptop return only a HTTP 404 error page?

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