I use packer to build immutable Ubuntu 20.04 servers.

How can it work smoothly with unattended upgrades?

Since the image is not bundled like it was in the past the updates do not apply to new instances. It means that when a server comes up unattended upgrades will need to run full upgrades. This is problematic because some of them requires reboot + it prolongs the server get-up time.

What is the best practice for unattended upgrades on immutable servers?

  • rebuild the golden image as soon as there are new unattended upgrades (or just do it daily), then redeploy the servers.
    – AlexD
    Commented Dec 27, 2021 at 19:22
  • @AlexD There are different servers and replacing them is complicated due to running cron jobs. Its not a feasible solution
    – Niro
    Commented Dec 27, 2021 at 21:05

1 Answer 1


My test for immutable Linux servers would be mounting /usr read only for the duration of the host's lifetime. Debian or Ubuntu boxes with unattended upgrades enabled are not immutable.

But you must still apply updates. New immutable images should be created for every package update of the system software. Lots of images, yes, but the point of immutable is to have a known set of packages, that only changes when replaced atomically by another known set on reboot.

When creating new images, install packages and update all to the latest. Disable unattended upgrades. Possibly remove apt altogether. How to accomplish this varies, could be preseed scripting, or post provisioning commands, or something else. Complete all changes to the system before archiving it as an image.

Over in Red Hat land, they have ostree for an atomic upgrade system, and composer aka image builder for image creation in general. Ubuntu possibly has an answer to these.

  • Thanks @john. I understand what you're saying but there must be a better way
    – Niro
    Commented Dec 28, 2021 at 13:10
  • What do you need improved? You asked for an immutable system. And all software must be updated, this is the same servicing you had to do before, delivered differently. Commented Dec 28, 2021 at 13:48

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