log4shell has caused us to improve the security of some servers. We want now also block outgoing traffic (as possible). The current firewall rules are:

/> firewall-cmd --list-all
public (active)
  target: default
  icmp-block-inversion: no
  interfaces: eth0
  services: dhcpv6-client https smtp ssh
  ports: 143/tcp 3000/tcp 4949/tcp 8080/tcp 12999/tcp 25/tcp 1194/tcp
  masquerade: no
  rich rules: 

So at example connections to the server via ssh are currently possible (and should be still possible in the future). Now we want to prevent all outgoing connections except connections through https (443). To do that we have add some firewalld rules (see also https://serverfault.com/a/624474/145652):

/> firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport=443 -j ACCEPT
/> firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -j DROP
/> firewall-cmd --reload

But after these commands, we will lose all connections to server: no ping, no ssh, the server don't accepts any connection. Possible that firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -j DROP is blocking all outgoing traffic, including the servers answer of incoming (ssh-) requests? Is there a rule missing to allow sending the answer data of incoming requests?

  • Using direct rules barely qualifies as using firewalld. It's more bypassing it (with low priority values) than using it.
    – A.B
    Commented Dec 29, 2021 at 18:24

2 Answers 2


I'm just spinning up an instance to test, but I suspect it's because you're not allowing related/established outbound rules as well, so the kernel is killing your existing connections.

Update: I'm sure this is the problem. I just tested it by booting Centos 7 on an EC2 instance, installing FirewallD, and then pasting in your first rule without the permanent flag. All working okay.

As soon as I pasted in the DROP rule, I got disconnected.

In the link you provided, the first rule they add is an ESTABLISHED,RELATED rule. This means that connections that are allowed in are allowed out (so the firewall is stateful). Without that rule, you have no stateful rules and your SSH connection can't establish.

So your actual list of rules needs to be:

# firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
# firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
# firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
# firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
# firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 1 -p udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
# firewall-cmd --permanent --direct --add-rule ipv4 filter OUTPUT 2 -j DROP

Note I've included HTTP, HTTPS, and DNS as well - else connections won't establish to DNS names because the server won't be able to resolve them...

  • 2
    In the link I provide, I had only read the accepted answer. But sometimes it's a good idea to read more as only the accepted answer or the answer with the most upvotes - lol. Thanks!
    – Steffen
    Commented Dec 30, 2021 at 9:09

I managed blocking outbound traffic with firewalld policies:



The following policy did the trick:

#Setup a new policy
firewall-cmd --permanent --new-policy myOutputPolicy
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --add-ingress-zone HOST
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --add-egress-zone ANY

#Block all output traffic
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --set-target REJECT

#Configure Exceptions
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --add-service dns
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --add-service https
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --add-service http

#Apply changes
firewall-cmd --reload

After this all outbound traffic except dns, http and https are rejected and inbound traffic still works.

If needed, the policy can be set unblocking:

#Enable all output traffic
firewall-cmd --permanent --policy myOutputPolicy --set-target ACCEPT
firewall-cmd --reload

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