I use SSH a lot in Linux. What I usually do is tunnel into the server, then basically run things from that tunnel (e.g. connecting to MySQL, uploading files, etc). What is the Windows Server version of "SSH". Not really SSH, but something that works exactly like it in Linux.
There are Windows ports of OpenSSH out there which will allow you to run an SSH Daemon on a Windows box, the main one I've used in the past doesn't seem to have been updated in a very long time so I'd rather not link to it, I'm pretty certain it uses a code base that has a number of known holes.
Alternatively SysInternals PSexec allow you to easily get a remote cmd shell on a Windows system provided you have the appropriate accounts. It's not as much of a multipurpose tool as SSH but if you are looking for a remote command line then it will do the trick and it has the advantage of not actually requiring you to install a service on your target beforehand which is a big plus.
Resist the temptation of Remote Desktop. While I'll admit it's instant gratification, it's also years of manual labor for no reason at all.
Instead, become familiar with Group Policy and Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).
There's WMIC included in recent versions of Windows but most programming languages have WMI interfaces, including PowerShell.
Based on comments, add this: If by "SSH for Windows" you really mean "commandline interface where you can manage one machine or 10.000 machines almost just as easily", you'll want a commandline (or programming) interface for WMI.