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I am using a shared webhosting, for which I have an IPv4 and IPv6 address pointing to the server. I am wondering, if any user can see from the outside that both addresses point to the same server? Are the IP addresses somehow linked? Is there any relationship between them?

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You can't. In general, IPv4 is one realm and IPv6 is another one, they aren't linked (except for very special cases of translated and mapped addresses; a tiny portion of IPv6 address space is allocated to host a whole set of IPv4 addresses, and these are linked).

Even more to that, you can't even reliably say from outside that two IPv6 or two IPv4 addresses actually point to (are assigned on) the same server.

Also consider case of NAT: two addresses assigned to the same router, but NATed to different back-end servers. Does this count? Or, in a cluster environment, there are things like "cluster IP": the IP address which is assigned to several machines simultaneously.

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