What does the number besides the permission represnet? i.e. the 3, 8, and 1's.

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Also, is there a command that combines chown and chgrp ?

2 Answers 2


You can use chown with the group after the user like so: chown user:group.

The number you mention is the number of hard links to a file. It's always at least 1 (itself).


The number is the number of links to the inode. Directories have two (.. and .) plus the number of subdirectories (each one has ..). Files have N where N is the number of hard links, where all files have at least one.

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