after changing IPs on of the ESXi hypervisor (without setting to maintenance mode), I can't access the vCenter Server with vSphere anymore.
But I can access the ESXi over SSH. So, the IP is correct, but why can't I access it with the client?
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There can be several causes. Your first place to check is the VMware KB Article.
From root SSH on the ESXi console:
Or "Restart Management Network" from the F2 console.
If you continue to see issues, do what @TCampbell said and remove/readd.
If you are still seeing issues, RDP to your vCenter server and verify connectivity from the server to the host. Check port 901/902 from your vCenter server with
telnet <ip address> <port> or another utility.
Did your hostname change, too? You may have to regenerate SSL keys with
Is the vCenter Server running in a virtual machine? Or are you trying to connect directly to the single vSphere on the ESXi Host? If vCenter is running in a VM, try to connect directly to vSphere on the Host that it runs on, and make sure that the VM is actually started and running properly.
Or, when you changed IP addresses, did the vCenter Server VM change IPs too? If you changed subnets or VLANs on the host, but not the VMs themselves, maybe the vCenter VM is inaccessible to the network. In that case, connect directly to the host, use the console to connect to the VM, and fix the IP settings there.