Using postfix, I'd like all incoming mail, to any address (including those that don't map to local users) to be piped to a script. I've tried configuring mailbox_command in /etc/postfix/main.cf:

mailbox_command = /path/to/myscript.py

This works great if the user is a local user, but it fails for "unknown" users who don't have aliases. I tried setting luser_relay to a local user, but this pre-empts mailbox_command, and so the command doesn't get run. I tried setting local_recipient_maps= (empty string), but the message is still bounced (unknown user).

Is there a magic invocation I can use to get all known and unknown users to go to the script as well?

Full /etc/postfix/main.cf follows -- it's the default Ubuntu 10.04, with the exception of the mailbox_command line:

# See /usr/share/postfix/main.cf.dist for a commented, more complete version

# Debian specific:  Specifying a file name will cause the first
# line of that file to be used as the name.  The Debian default
# is /etc/mailname.
#myorigin = /etc/mailname

smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name (Ubuntu)
biff = no

# appending .domain is the MUA's job.
append_dot_mydomain = no

# Uncomment the next line to generate "delayed mail" warnings
#delay_warning_time = 4h

readme_directory = no

# TLS parameters
smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache

# See /usr/share/doc/postfix/TLS_README.gz in the postfix-doc package for
# information on enabling SSL in the smtp client.

myhostname = ... snip ...
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
mydestination = sassafras, ... snip ...,localhost.localdomain, localhost
relayhost =
mynetworks = [::ffff:]/104 [::1]/128
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all

mailbox_command = /path/to/my/script.py
  • After the script, what then? This sounds like the kind of thing that virus scanners and spam filters do, maybe you can find a guide to configuring one of those and use its configuration for your script?
    – DerfK
    Commented Apr 11, 2011 at 20:48
  • The messages go to a web application. So after the script: a database, other processing, other stuff, but not normal mail stuff. The key question is getting the unknown users to not bounce -- this is outside the normal virus/spam scenario, where you would bounce unmapped users.
    – user67641
    Commented Apr 11, 2011 at 20:53
  • @user67641 hi do i need to inject the mail into postfix in my script or by adding some more lines in master.cf
    – merveotesi
    Commented Dec 4, 2013 at 8:40

4 Answers 4


Ok, I just got this working -- though hairier than I thought it would be. I dropped the maildir_command part, and went with transport_maps. The key is to do 5 things:

  1. Set up a db file to handle aliases (and add a catch-all alias)
  2. Set up a db file to map the 'transport' for the domain in question to a special handler.
  3. Compile the db files into berkeley db format that postfix wants.
  4. Set up the handler in /etc/postfix/master.cf to pipe mail to the script.
  5. Set /etc/postfix/main.cf to use the transport db for transport_maps, and the alias db for virtual_alias-maps.

(1) Create /etc/postfix/virtual_aliases to add a catch-all alias -- localuser needs to be an existing local user:

@mydomain.tld   [email protected]

(2) Create /etc/postfix/transport to add a transport mapping. "mytransportname" can be whatever you want; it's used below in master.cf:

mydomain.tld    mytransportname:

(3) Next, both transport and virtual_aliases need to be compiled into berkeley db files:

$ sudo postmap /etc/postfix/virtual_aliases
$ sudo postmap /etc/postfix/transport

(4) Add the transport to /etc/postfix/master.cf:

mytransportname   unix  -       n       n       -       -       pipe
  flags=FR user=localuser argv=/path/to/my/script.py
  ${nexthop} ${user}

(5) In /etc/postfix/main.cf:

  transport_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/transport
  virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual_aliases

And... good to go! Sheesh.

  • 1
    extremely useful answer
    – merveotesi
    Commented Nov 12, 2013 at 15:42
  • 1
    Virtual alias maps are not needed. You can accomplish the same thing with relay_domains (in which case the transport file can filter based on the actual To: address).
    – Brilliand
    Commented Jul 14, 2015 at 21:03
  • I found you can route all virtual mail to a script with virtual_transport = mailcaptcha: in main.cf and mailcaptcha unix - n n - - pipe flags=FR user=vmail argv=/usr/bin/perl /usr/local/mail-captcha/verify.pl ${sender} ${recipient} in master.cf. See postfix.org/transport.5.html and postfix.org/VIRTUAL_README.html.
    – Chloe
    Commented Jan 19, 2017 at 18:44
  • The (4) should be in one single line, is that right? Also doesn't it require a postfix restart or reload or something like this? Last thing: is there a log file to see the mails who arrived to postfix?
    – Basj
    Commented Nov 21, 2017 at 15:25
  • 1
    In order to use the envelope recipient ( RCTP TO) in the script, either append the envelope recipient as header by using flags=FRDO, or pass it to the script as parameter by adding the ${original_recipient} command-line macro. Documentation: postfix.org/pipe.8.html
    – fiedl
    Commented Jul 22, 2019 at 22:31

The only time I've used something like this was for a specific user's mailbox. All that was required was to alias that user's name to a pipe and a process in aliases:

pong: "| /usr/local/bin/gotit.pl"

This sent traffic destined for "[email protected]" to a perl script I wrote to process it.

gotit.pl (as an example, don't pick on me for crappy programming skillz =). It's job was to process an email I'd sent to our Exchange server (where it was auto-replied via some VB code) to verify that Exchange was processing email in a timely fashion. If not, the mail server would send out an alert email to our pagers and write a lock file so we didn't get constantly spammed.

#! /usr/bin/perl -w
use vars qw ( $mung $sent $tvalue $remainder $delta $fout );
$mung = time;
while (<STDIN>) {
    ($sent, $tvalue, $remainder ) = split /: /, $_, 3;
    $tvalue =~ s/(\D+)//g;
    $delta = $mung-$tvalue;
    if ( $sent =~ "Sent" ) {
        $fout = "/var/spool/mailcheck/$tvalue";
        next unless ( -e $fout );
        open (TMP, "> $fout") or die "Couldn't open output file: $!\n";
        print TMP "Received in: $delta seconds.\n";
                close TMP;
  • Yeah, and just redirect @mydomain.tld to pong and all incoming main for mydomain.tld will be piped.
    – Zaar Hai
    Commented Jul 13, 2014 at 10:55
  • and for those of us using multiple virtual domains, don't forget to redirect it to pong@localhost so that it doesn't attach the default domain name to the alias Commented Aug 22, 2019 at 22:25

After a lot of headaches I put together this solution based on a couple of different sources that resulted in much less effort, the critical steps were configuring virtual_alias_domains as well as virtual_alias_maps and making sure that the virtual mapping was to my-alias@localhost instead of just my-alias. In my example the command alias is to pipe the email to a website API endpoint, but it could just as easily pipe into something else.

Here are the steps you'll need to take:

  • Set up your A and MX records for your domain, the A record @ pointing to the IP of the server you’re going to be receiving emails on and MX with the hostname @ and the value 10 mail.your-domain-name
  • sudo apt-get install postfix
  • Select "Internet Site" and enter your-domain-name (fully qualified)
  • sudo vi /etc/postfix/main.cf
  • Add mail.your-domain-name to the list of mydestination values
  • Append
virtual_alias_domains = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual_domains
virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual

to the end of the file

  • sudo apt-get vi /etc/aliases
curl_email: "|curl --data-binary @- http://your-domain-name/email"
  • sudo newaliases
  • sudo apt-get vi /etc/postfix/virtual_domains
example.net   #domain
example.com   #domain
your-domain-name   #domain

(the #domain fields suppress warnings)

  • sudo postmap /etc/postfix/virtual_domains
  • sudo apt-get vi /etc/postfix/virtual
info@your-domain-name [email protected]
everyone@your-domain-name [email protected] [email protected]
email_processor@your-domain-name curl_email@localhost
@your-domain-name [email protected]
[email protected] [email protected]
  • sudo postmap /etc/postfix/virtual
  • sudo /etc/init.d/postfix reload

I've used an old style "flat file" Mailbox to receive all mail (and then prune it every few hours if it's large), instead of using the modern maildir/ folders, to process mail through scripts. You could run logrotate over the file too I suppose to keep it manageable.

This way you could simply copy all mail to a Mailbox as a local user.

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