We have a setup of ADSL line -> Cisco 837 ADSL router -> Zyxel ZyWall 35 firewall/NAT -> Switch -> LAN.
It has been fine for years, suddenly DNS resolution stopped working from the LAN to public DNS servers. No changes that I know of, so I can't revert anything.
- DNS requests from the LAN using TCP show up in the oubound firewall log, in the Cisco debug log, in the dns-server-firewall, in tcpdump on the DNS server, the answer comes back, it works fine.
- DNS requests from the LAN using UDP show up in the outbound firewall log, in the Cisco debug log, but does NOT show in the dns-server-firewall, not in tcpdump on the DNS server, times out.
- DNS requests from the Cisco using UDP show up in the dns-server-firewall and in tcpdump on the DNS server, answer received, works fine.
- netcat connections to port 53 or a random port by TCP show up in the dns-server-firewall
- netcat connections to port 53 or a random port by UDP do not show up in the dns-server-firewall
Summary: TCP seems fine throughought. UDP works from the Cisco over the ADSL, and it works from the LAN to the Cisco, but it doesn't seem to cross the Cisco 837 properly. Update: confirmed with netcat that any UDP traffic from the LAN is affected, not just traffic to port 53.
Update: If I change the firewall's external IP to any other IP in the subnet, this starts working. When I put it back, it stops working. I now suspect it's an ISP issue (does that sound plausible?), and am removing the Cisco config.