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I run an Ubuntu desktop with a bunch of virtual servers in Virtual Box to test stuff out, etc. In the past I have also been connecting to other kinds of remote VPS Linux boxes. Currently my .ssh/known_hosts file has a whole bunch of keys in it, most of which are not being used any more.

I want to clean up my .ssh/known_hosts file, but how do I know which key belongs to what host? I.e. how do I know which keys I can safely remove and which ones I should leave alone?

71

To find out which entry is for a known hostname in known_hosts:

 # ssh-keygen -H  -F <hostname or IP address>

To delete a single entry from known_hosts:

 # ssh-keygen -R <hostname or IP address>
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27

If you've got a list of all your hosts, you can do something like

ssh-keyscan -t rsa,dsa -f list_of_hosts > ~/.ssh/known_hosts

That will overwrite your .ssh/known_hosts file with a newly generated one based on scanning the hosts.

And also do what theotherreceive suggests; HashKnownHosts is more annoyance than help here.

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  • ssh-keyscan has a very strict formatting rules of the list_of_hosts file. It needs to be be just the addres and no other whitespace then LF after each address. That includes LF after last address. Otherwise you get a lot of trash in the generated file. – Nux Feb 23 '16 at 14:25
23

With difficulty...

Ubuntu by default hashes hostnames the known_hosts file (this is not the default openssh behaviour), to make it difficult for anyone reading the file to know what systems you access.

If you really wanted to clean out the file, simplest option is probably just delete it and check the keys for servers you know as they arise, but really I'd just leave known_hosts alone.

You can stop new hosts entries from being hashed by commenting out the option in /etc/ssh/ssh_config

#HashKnownHosts yes
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  • Cleaning up ~/.ssh/known_hosts also helps when the configuration of the remote host changes and ssh shows a warning. However one should be careful with that and ignore the warnnig only for trusted hosts. – Alex Aug 28 '09 at 8:28
  • 6
    A better option might be to explain how to generate the hash for a specific hostname, allowing him to search for that hash in known_hosts so he can update it. – Cerin Feb 6 '12 at 15:58
  • 1
    After above change just add a new entry e.g. by connecting to new server with ssh root@something-new-or-new-dns-alias. This will refresh the original known_hosts file and de-crypt the host names/IPs. – Nux Feb 23 '16 at 14:27
3

I had over 300 stale old entries in my known_hosts file. Not sure that it will work for all systems (or even most systems) but here is my Q&D script. You may have to adjust the matching strings or location.

#!/bin/sh
list=`cat ~/.ssh/known_hosts | awk '{print $1}' |sed -e 's/,/ /g' | sort -u `

listsorted=$(printf "%s\n" ${list[@]} | sort -u)
echo $listsorted
#listsorted="10.2.10.1"
echo > /tmp/sshstat.txt
for host in $listsorted ;
do
echo $host 
ssh -oBatchMode=yes -oConnectTimeout=2  root@${host} "exit" >/tmp/sshstat.txt 2>&1 
ret=$?
if [ $ret -ne 0 ]; then
     echo "Failed: $host"
     echo sed -i.bak \"/$host/d\" "~/.ssh/known_hosts" | sh
else
    grep "Offending RSA" /tmp/sshstat.txt |  sed -e 's/:/ /g' | awk '{printf "sed -i.bak -e \"%dd\" %s  \n", $6, "~/.ssh/known_hosts" }' | sh
   fi
done
#echo $list
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  • 1
    This doesn't work on a hashed known_hosts file, and since the questioner asks, "how do I know which key belongs to what host" I think it's very likely that his file is hashed. He says he's on Ubuntu, and as theotherreceive says, Ubuntu hashes by default. – Neil Mayhew Aug 8 '19 at 18:57

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