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It seems fsck.ext4 quit very soon, I guess it only checks the journal logs, and do nothing if the journal is clean. Is it? How to force it to check the whole file system? I've tried the -f option, but it quits again said it's clean very quickly.

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Try: fsck -pvcf -- will force a verbose check for bad blocks and automatically repair. If you still have issues then your HDD might have physical problems.

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    Make sure that the filesystem is NOT mounted before performing a fsck command. – mdpc Jul 23 '11 at 4:25
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On my machine, e2fsck -fv <ext4-device> takes a long while, about two to four minutes (the device is about 360 GiB full). So I assume it does a full check! I usually use e2fsck -vfp -C0 <ext4-device>, "-p" makes automatic fixing, "-C0" prints progress to stdout, and "-v" is for "verbose".

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