Are there any current industry standards IEEE, ISO, ANSI.... available that state how a buildings physical infrastructure should be labeled at the rack and jack and how the documentation should be laid out? I know there is IEEE Std 200, but that is out of date, and I found a ASME standard for electrical stuff but I can't actually read it.
I don't know that there are industry standards, but there are plenty of options. Some have been discussed here:
I think the "standard" is
Pick a labeling methodology for your site. Document it. Follow it. Kill anyone who deviates from it in a grisly and public way as an example to those who would break from the one true path of cable identification.
The standards you are looking for are the
TIA/EIA-568 Structured Cabling Standards
These standards determine everything from precise dimensions of peripherals to their physical properties to labeling criteria. It has various sub sections that deal with particular areas in a structural cabling topology like Horizontal cabling, vertical cabling etc.
It appears the most relevant standard is EIA/TIA 606-A. A summary of this standard can be seen here: www.flexcomm.com/library/606aguide.pdf
Since this standard isn't widely used/accepted, I'm awarding the bounty on this question to the highest rated answer.