I was looking at my harddrive with gparted, and noticed a small partition at /dev/sda5. I cannot cd into that folder directly, but I was hoping to find out what is on that partition. How do I do this? Do I need to mount it?
From reading everything you've posted, it's swap space. You cannot mount it, and there is nothing interesting to see there anyway. All that it contains is memory pages that needed to be moved from RAM to disk to make room for actively running processes.
Read Here for more info on swap space.
Yes, determine the file system type with
fsck -N /dev/sda5 or
file -s /dev/sda5 and mount by executing
mkdir /mnt/sda5 && mount -t <type> /dev/sda5 /mnt/sda5.
You need to mount the partition to see what's inside. However, you can mount it read-only to prevent even accidentally changing anything. This is done like this
mount --read-only /dev/sda5 tmp