This may be a *nix thing, I'm not sure.


An extra byte is for the line end at the end of the file, it's quite common for Linux text editors to add this line end after the last line.

  • 1
    The gcc compiler even complains if this blank line is not there. – Dana the Sane Sep 1 '11 at 20:23
  • @Dana the Sane, yeah and shell interpreters (at least old ones) won't interpret the last line of a shell script if it's not terminated with a line end. – Alex Sep 1 '11 at 20:31
  • 1
    Some text editors (e.g. vim) will also warn you if you don't have the EOL. – Andrew Sep 1 '11 at 23:12

Probably a trailing new-line character. For example, a file created in a text editor containing only an 'a' may actually contain 2 bytes:

$ cat /tmp/test_text | hexdump -C
00000000  61 0a                                             |a.|

However, using echo -n (no new line) gives us a size of 1 byte:

$ echo -n 'a' > /tmp/test_text 
$ ls -l /tmp/test_text 
-rw-r--r--  1 redacted  redacted  1  1 Sep 21:09 /tmp/test_text
$ cat /tmp/test_text | hexdump -C
00000000  61                                                |a|

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