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I am running unicorn on Ubuntu 11, Rails 3.0, and Ruby 1.8.7.

It is an 8 core ec2 box, and I am running 15 workers. CPU never seems to get pinned, and I seem to be handling requests pretty nicely.

My question concerns memory usage, and what concerns I should have with what I am seeing. (if any)

Here is the scenario:

Under constant load (about 15 reqs/sec coming in from nginx), over the course of an hour, each server in the 3 server cluster loses about 100MB / hour. This is a linear slope for about 6 hours, then it appears to level out, but still maybe appear to lose about 10MB/hour.

If I drop my page caches using the linux command echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches, the available free memory shoots back up to what it was when I started the unicorns, and the memory loss pattern begins again over the hours.


             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       7130244    5005376    2124868          0     113628     422856
-/+ buffers/cache:    4468892    2661352
Swap:     33554428          0   33554428


             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:       7130244    4467144    2663100          0        228      11172
-/+ buffers/cache:    4455744    2674500
Swap:     33554428          0   33554428

My Ruby code does use memoizations and I'm assuming Ruby/Rails/Unicorn is keeping its own caches... what I'm wondering is should I be worried about this behaviour?

FWIW, my Unicorn config:

worker_processes 15

listen "#{CAPISTRANO_ROOT}/shared/pids/unicorn_socket", :backlog => 1024
listen 8080, :tcp_nopush => true
timeout 180

pid "#{CAPISTRANO_ROOT}/shared/pids/unicorn.pid"

GC.respond_to?(:copy_on_write_friendly=) and  GC.copy_on_write_friendly = true

before_fork do |server, worker|

  defined?(ActiveRecord::Base) and ActiveRecord::Base.connection.disconnect!
  defined?(Resque) and Resque.redis.client.disconnect

  old_pid = "#{CAPISTRANO_ROOT}/shared/pids/unicorn.pid.oldbin"
  if File.exists?(old_pid) && server.pid != old_pid
      Process.kill("QUIT", File.read(old_pid).to_i)
    rescue Errno::ENOENT, Errno::ESRCH
      # already killed

  File.open("#{CAPISTRANO_ROOT}/shared/pids/unicorn.pid.ok", "w"){|f| f.print($$.to_s)}


after_fork do |server, worker|
  defined?(ActiveRecord::Base) and ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection
  defined?(Resque) and Resque.redis.client.connect

Is there a need to experiment enforcing more stringent garbage collection using OobGC (http://unicorn.bogomips.org/Unicorn/OobGC.html)? Or is this just normal behaviour, and when/as the system needs more memory, it will empty the caches by itself, without me manually running that cache command? Basically, is this normal, expected behaviour?


marked as duplicate by Michael Hampton Aug 6 '14 at 4:47

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.


This is the line that matters (specifically the last column):

-/+ buffers/cache: 4468892 2661352

You'll note that this number doesn't really change when you dropped your caches.

The OS will deal with the freeing buffers when the running applications demand more memory. For what you're doing, it's not productive to try being very fiddly with how the OS handles its memory, particularly given that you appear to have plenty.

  • So what you are saying is, leave it alone, it looks ok? – Geremy Apr 10 '12 at 18:36
  • @user970193 Yes. If the buffers/cache number dips low (you should have monitoring tools looking at that), you should investigate further (you'll have time to investigate, as you have an enormous amount of swap), but nothing you've shown in your question indicates that you are constrained by available RAM. – cjc Apr 10 '12 at 18:50
  • Thank you. Can you recommend any articles that dive a little deeper into how available RAM and buffers/caching work together? I'd like a better idea of whats going on inside the box here. – Geremy Apr 10 '12 at 19:17
  • linuxatemyram.com and the discussion here: serverfault.com/questions/85470/… – cjc Apr 10 '12 at 19:25

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