As per 24. January 2022 there is no way to do that with Thunderbird (v.91.5.0).
There was when using the Enigmail extension, but as of TB version 78 this option is gone with the wind. This is a severe regression as compared to Enigmail, and a persistent one at that: 13 major versions of TB and no fix in sight.
Here is the relevant bit in the Thunderbird Q&A:
As a result of this missing functionality one needs to meticulously check every e-mail for whether it is encrypted as expected. More work. I sent countless unencrypted e-mails that should have been encrypted. So much for the end-to-end encryption in Thunderbird.
PS: The Q&A writes about decryption. However the intended use of e-mail per-recipient-rules was and still is encryption. Otherwise this feature would have been named per-senders-rules and we wouldn't have to "Please ensure that your encryption and digital signature settings apply..." I guess this is a mere documentation inconsistency.