20

SSL certificates by default have line breaks after 67 characters. I'm trying to create SSL certificate files using Chef. Essentially I want to create the entire certificate file from a string variable without any line breaks. I've tried this a few times to no avail (Apache complains about not being able to find certificate).

I don't see why line breaks in an SSL cert would be necessary. Any ideas if it's possible to have a cert without any line breaks in the file?

16

No, the certificate won't be handled properly without the line breaks - software will fail to parse it.

If you're trying to pass it in a string, why not just include them in it? (\n)

  • Yep, should have thought of that. Using the \n character works. Thanks! – wrangler Jan 13 '13 at 20:50
3

It's a standard, and you should follow.

The RSA standards (e.g. RFC 2459) only define a binary representation for keys. In practice, like OpenPGP keys (RFC 4880), they are often encoded in base 64 using the otherwise obsolete PEM standards (RFC 1421).

The PEM printable encoding section says:

To represent the encapsulated text of a PEM message, the encoding function's output is delimited into text lines (using local conventions), with each line except the last containing exactly 64 printable characters and the final line containing 64 or fewer printable characters.

  • 2
    2459 is long obsolete (by 3280 in 2002 and 5280 in 2008) but this particular point (using ASN.1 DER which is binary) hasn't changed. OTOH 7468 more recently (2015) makes official the de-facto PEM-style formats for several things including certs. – dave_thompson_085 Nov 24 '17 at 4:39
3

I found this script handful in doing that.

awk 'NF {sub(/\r/, ""); printf "%s\\n",$0;}'  ca.pem

This will take a standard PEM file on multiple lines, replace the "hidden" newline characters with \n, and print the output as a single line.

For example, this will make the following PEM file...

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

look like this output...

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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\n-----END CERTIFICATE-----\n

I found this useful when trying to upload an SSL certificate via the Rancher REST API, and couldn't get the encoding correct.

  • 3
    A bit more detail on why this is an answer would help – Dave M Dec 7 '18 at 15:22
  • saved my day! works great! – benchuk Feb 20 at 17:33
  • @DaveM hopefully that edit helps. – zymhan Apr 30 at 15:36
2

The line length, and so the line breaks, are due to 64-bit encoding used in the certificate files: see this Wikipedia article, for instance, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base64

Put newline characters (\n) into your string variable, instead.

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