4

Both two servers started keepalived, and the BACKUP server transited to MASTER STATE immediately. both two became MASTER now.

Both two nodes are sending VRRP advertisement msg.

on master server:

[root@zhsq1 ~]# tcpdump -c 3 -i em1 host 224.0.0.18
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on em1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
11:01:35.526355 IP zhsq1 > 224.0.0.18: VRRPv2, Advertisement, vrid 51, prio 153, authtype simple, intvl 1s, length 20
11:01:36.526497 IP zhsq1 > 224.0.0.18: VRRPv2, Advertisement, vrid 51, prio 153, authtype simple, intvl 1s, length 20
11:01:37.527561 IP zhsq1 > 224.0.0.18: VRRPv2, Advertisement, vrid 51, prio 153, authtype simple, intvl 1s, length 20

on the backup server:

[root@zhsq2 ~]# tcpdump -c 3 -i em1 host 224.0.0.18
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on em1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
11:11:04.314996 IP zhsq2 > 224.0.0.18: VRRPv2, Advertisement, vrid 51, prio 102, authtype simple, intvl 1s, length 20
11:11:05.315111 IP zhsq2 > 224.0.0.18: VRRPv2, Advertisement, vrid 51, prio 102, authtype simple, intvl 1s, length 20
11:11:06.316175 IP zhsq2 > 224.0.0.18: VRRPv2, Advertisement, vrid 51, prio 102, authtype simple, intvl 1s, length 20

below is the master server log:

May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived[31475]: Starting Keepalived v1.2.7 (05/20,2013)
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived[31476]: Starting Healthcheck child process, pid=31477
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived[31476]: Starting VRRP child process, pid=31478
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Interface queue is empty
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: No such interface, em2
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Netlink reflector reports IP 10.0.7.60 added
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Netlink reflector reports IP fe80::92b1:1cff:fe4c:bea8 added
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Registering Kernel netlink reflector
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Registering Kernel netlink command channel
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Interface queue is empty
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: No such interface, em2
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Netlink reflector reports IP 10.0.7.60 added
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Netlink reflector reports IP fe80::92b1:1cff:fe4c:bea8 added
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Registering Kernel netlink reflector
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Registering Kernel netlink command channel
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Registering gratuitous ARP shared channel
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Opening file '/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf'.
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Configuration is using : 4661 Bytes
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Opening file '/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf'.
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Configuration is using : 63856 Bytes
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: Using LinkWatch kernel netlink reflector...
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP sockpool: [ifindex(2), proto(112), fd(11,12)]
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Using LinkWatch kernel netlink reflector...
May 31 11:00:22 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP_Script(chk_http_port) succeeded
May 31 11:00:23 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Transition to MASTER STATE
May 31 11:00:24 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering MASTER STATE
May 31 11:00:24 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) setting protocol VIPs.
May 31 11:00:24 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Sending gratuitous ARPs on em1 for 10.0.7.65
May 31 11:00:24 zhsq1 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31477]: Netlink reflector reports IP 10.0.7.65 added
May 31 11:00:29 zhsq1 Keepalived_vrrp[31478]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Sending gratuitous ARPs on em1 for 10.0.7.65

below is the backup server log:

May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived[31250]: Starting Keepalived v1.2.7 (05/20,2013)
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived[31251]: Starting Healthcheck child process, pid=31252
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived[31251]: Starting VRRP child process, pid=31253
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Interface queue is empty
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: No such interface, em2
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Netlink reflector reports IP 10.0.7.61 added
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Netlink reflector reports IP fe80::92b1:1cff:fe4c:b8b7 added
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Registering Kernel netlink reflector
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Registering Kernel netlink command channel
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Interface queue is empty
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: No such interface, em2
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Netlink reflector reports IP 10.0.7.61 added
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Netlink reflector reports IP fe80::92b1:1cff:fe4c:b8b7 added
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Registering Kernel netlink reflector
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Registering Kernel netlink command channel
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Registering gratuitous ARP shared channel
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Opening file '/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf'.
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Configuration is using : 4661 Bytes
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Opening file '/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf'.
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Configuration is using : 63856 Bytes
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: Using LinkWatch kernel netlink reflector...
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering BACKUP STATE
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP sockpool: [ifindex(2), proto(112), fd(11,12)]
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Using LinkWatch kernel netlink reflector...
May 31 11:01:50 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Script(chk_http_port) succeeded
May 31 11:01:54 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Transition to MASTER STATE
May 31 11:01:55 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Entering MASTER STATE
May 31 11:01:55 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) setting protocol VIPs.
May 31 11:01:55 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Sending gratuitous ARPs on em1 for 10.0.7.65
May 31 11:01:55 zhsq2 Keepalived_healthcheckers[31252]: Netlink reflector reports IP 10.0.7.65 added
May 31 11:02:00 zhsq2 Keepalived_vrrp[31253]: VRRP_Instance(VI_1) Sending gratuitous ARPs on em1 for 10.0.7.65

the master server's keepalived conf is below:

vrrp_script chk_http_port {         
        script "/opt/nginx/nginx_pid.sh"
        interval 2 
        weight 2  
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 {  
        state MASTER
        #nopreempt 
        interface em1
        virtual_router_id 51 
        priority 151
        mcast_src_ip 10.0.7.60 
        track_interface {
                em1
        }
        authentication {  
                auth_type PASS 
                auth_pass 1111 
        }  
        track_script {  
                chk_http_port 
        }  
        virtual_ipaddress {                  
                10.0.7.65 dev em1
        }  
} 

the backup server's keepalived conf is below:

vrrp_script chk_http_port {
        script "/opt/nginx/nginx_pid.sh"
        interval 2
        weight 2
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 {
        state BACKUP
        interface em1
        virtual_router_id 51
        priority 100
        mcast_src_ip 10.0.7.61
        track_interface {
                em1
        }
        authentication {
                auth_type PASS
                auth_pass 1111
        }
        track_script {
                chk_http_port
        }
        virtual_ipaddress {
                10.0.7.65 dev em1
        }
}

the chk_http_port file is below:

NGINX_PROCESS=`ps -C nginx --no-header | wc -l`

if [ $NGINX_PROCESS -eq 0 ]; then

        /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

        sleep 3

        if [ `ps -C nginx --no-header | wc -l` -eq 0 ]; then

                killall keepalived 

        fi  

fi

Please help me.

Thanks a lot.

5
  • On both nodes: cat /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf?
    – quanta
    May 31, 2013 at 6:34
  • i have updated the conf info. May 31, 2013 at 7:50
  • cat /opt/nginx/nginx_pid.sh? Pay attention to this line VRRP_Script(chk_http_port) succeeded in the log file on BACKUP server.
    – quanta
    May 31, 2013 at 8:14
  • I have posted the shell file. May 31, 2013 at 9:26
  • you have a split brain due to the two keepalives not being able to talk to each other
    – Mike
    Jun 1, 2013 at 3:28

7 Answers 7

17

Packets are not passing between machines on the em1 interface (causing a split brain scenario as Mike states).

  • check your firewall to ensure packets aren't being caught
  • check your networking to ensure em1 is the same network on both machines

Here's an example of what one of the packets looks like:

Frame 2: 54 bytes on wire (432 bits), 54 bytes captured (432 bits)
    Arrival Time: Jun  1, 2013 03:39:50.709520000 UTC
    Epoch Time: 1370057990.709520000 seconds
    [Time delta from previous captured frame: 0.000970000 seconds]
    [Time delta from previous displayed frame: 0.000970000 seconds]
    [Time since reference or first frame: 0.000970000 seconds]
    Frame Number: 2
    Frame Length: 54 bytes (432 bits)
    Capture Length: 54 bytes (432 bits)
    [Frame is marked: False]
    [Frame is ignored: False]
    [Protocols in frame: eth:ip:vrrp]
Ethernet II, Src: 00:25:90:83:b0:07 (00:25:90:83:b0:07), Dst: 01:00:5e:00:00:12 (01:00:5e:00:00:12)
    Destination: 01:00:5e:00:00:12 (01:00:5e:00:00:12)
        Address: 01:00:5e:00:00:12 (01:00:5e:00:00:12)
        .... ...1 .... .... .... .... = IG bit: Group address (multicast/broadcast)
        .... ..0. .... .... .... .... = LG bit: Globally unique address (factory default)
    Source: 00:25:90:83:b0:07 (00:25:90:83:b0:07)
        Address: 00:25:90:83:b0:07 (00:25:90:83:b0:07)
        .... ...0 .... .... .... .... = IG bit: Individual address (unicast)
        .... ..0. .... .... .... .... = LG bit: Globally unique address (factory default)
    Type: IP (0x0800)
Internet Protocol Version 4, Src: 10.0.10.11 (10.0.10.11), Dst: 224.0.0.18 (224.0.0.18)
    Version: 4
    Header length: 20 bytes
    Differentiated Services Field: 0x00 (DSCP 0x00: Default; ECN: 0x00: Not-ECT (Not ECN-Capable Transport))
        0000 00.. = Differentiated Services Codepoint: Default (0x00)
        .... ..00 = Explicit Congestion Notification: Not-ECT (Not ECN-Capable Transport) (0x00)
    Total Length: 40
    Identification: 0x8711 (34577)
    Flags: 0x00
        0... .... = Reserved bit: Not set
        .0.. .... = Don't fragment: Not set
        ..0. .... = More fragments: Not set
    Fragment offset: 0
    Time to live: 255
    Protocol: VRRP (112)
    Header checksum: 0x4037 [correct]
        [Good: True]
        [Bad: False]
    Source: 10.0.10.11 (10.0.10.11)
    Destination: 224.0.0.18 (224.0.0.18)
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
    Version 2, Packet type 1 (Advertisement)
        0010 .... = VRRP protocol version: 2
        .... 0001 = VRRP packet type: Advertisement (1)
    Virtual Rtr ID: 254
    Priority: 151 (Non-default backup priority)
    Addr Count: 1
    Auth Type: No Authentication (0)
    Adver Int: 1
    Checksum: 0x3c01 [correct]
    IP Address: 10.0.0.254 (10.0.0.254)
5
  • thanks a lot. I will check it later. I am sure both two servers could ping each other regularly. Jun 1, 2013 at 3:33
  • Nothing runs over ping. Check your firewall to ensure that the appropriate packets (multicast in this case) are allowed.
    – MikeyB
    Jun 1, 2013 at 3:41
  • I have stopped the iptables and selinux service. The problem still exists. Jun 1, 2013 at 4:07
  • Basic troubleshooting time. Stop keepalived on both, run tshark on one, see if you get packets when you start keepalived on the other.
    – MikeyB
    Jun 1, 2013 at 19:15
  • It is also possible to use tcpdump instead of tshark: cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-verify-keepalived-working-or-not Apr 29, 2014 at 14:25
4

For my case I had to allow multicast traffic through the firewall to 224.0.0.18, for ufw:

ufw allow from 224.0.0.18
ufw allow to 224.0.0.18

This helped me.

1
  • 1
    224.0.0.18 is your virtual ip ?
    – Chang Zhao
    Oct 24, 2021 at 11:17
2

In my case, for CentOS/RHEL 8 I only had to allow firewall rich-rule for vrrp protocol for solving this Keepalived split-brain issue where both the servers held the VIP IP address. I had to add sysctl kernel flag for allowing HAProxy to bind to nonlocal VIP IP.

For sysctl, add net.ipv4.ip_nonlocal_bind = 1 in /etc/sysctl.conf file and then do a sysctl -p for reloading the sysctl config. I needed this NOT for the Keepalived split-brain scenario but for having HAProxy bind to its own IP address for stats (ex: bind 192.168.0.10:1492/stats) and bind to the VIP (virtual IP) address for load-balancing web traffic (bind 192.168.0.34:80 and bind 192.168.0.34:443). Otherwise, the HAProxy service failed to start stating it cannot bind to ports 80and443with the VIP IP address only. I was doing this to avoid having bind:80and bind:443`. Also, feels like a no-brainer but easily overlooked, check to see if you have allowed the port you are using for stats through the firewall if you are not able to reach the stats page.

For the firewall, execute the following commands:

# firewall-cmd --add-rich-rule='rule protocol value="vrrp" accept' --permanent
# firewall-cmd --reload

I found these flags and other information directly from RedHat documentation for HAProxy and Keepalived:

Firewall reference: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/load_balancer_administration/s1-lvs-connect-vsa

Nonlocal bind flag reference (this was used for HAProxy though as I was not using Keepalived for load-balancing): https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/load_balancer_administration/s1-initial-setup-forwarding-vsa

Additionally, if HAProxy still fails to bind to ports, you might want to look at the good ol' SELinux blocking it. For me, on CentOS 8 I had to do a semanage port -a -t http_port_t -p tcp 1492 for my HAProxy stats page.

2

I just came here looking for help with the same issue but none of the other answers helped. I have tracked down my issue though, so will leave it here for future web searchers.

The scenario you are running into, "split-brain" as they call it, is caused by just like another answer said: the communication between the two keepalived, specifically the multicast VRRP requests, is failing.

For me, the actual issue was that I was testing with VM's setup by libvirt with a macvtap network, which by default blocks incoming multicast requests.

The fix for me was to do virsh net-edit mymacvtapnetwork and then change the first line, <network> to <network trustGuestRxFilters='yes'>

For more info about the trustGuestRxFilters setting, see the links:

I was also able to see this like OP did, by running tcpdump host 224.0.0.18 and saw the VRRP request being sent from each server, but not being received by the other.

3
  • Again, the multicast packets aren't making it between the machines. Different underlying root cause, but same intermediate symptom. Those macvtap interfaces just cause so much unexpected trouble
    – MikeyB
    May 10, 2018 at 5:01
  • @MikeyB do you recommend something else? I wanted the VMs to acquire IPs from DHCP over my LAN instead of from the default libvirt NAT network. besides the multicast issue, macvtap seems to be working great, but I have barely used it. should i avoid it?
    – Dan
    May 10, 2018 at 12:25
  • Sure, use a bridge network instead of macvtap.
    – MikeyB
    May 11, 2018 at 14:20
1

The problem has been resolved.

The issue was a switch setting. When multicast filter mode is filter-all, the problem happened. But is fixed when multicast filter mode is forward-all.

3
  • 6
    Yeah, like I said. Packets are not passing between machines on the em1 interface. :P
    – MikeyB
    Feb 3, 2014 at 18:35
  • 13
    Pretty poor form to accept your own answer when a correct and more complete answer is present.
    – augurar
    Mar 4, 2016 at 0:06
  • 1
    Agreed with augurar.
    – elmonkeylp
    Feb 6, 2018 at 20:50
0

In my case, my network doesn't support multicast, so I had to use unicast_peer:

# Do not send VRRP adverts over a VRRP multicast group. Instead it sends adverts to the following list of ip addresses using unicast. It can be cool to use the VRRP FSM and features in a networking environment where multicast is not supported! IP addresses specified can be IPv4 as well as IPv6. If min_ttl and/or max_ttl are specified, the TTL/hop limit of any received packet is checked against the specified TTL range, and is discarded if it is outside the range. Specifying min_ttl or max_ttl turns on check_unicast_src. unicast_peer { [min_ttl {0..255}] [max_ttl {0..255}] ... }

For my case, it worked setting the following in both servers:

vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    ...
    unicast_peer {
        10.0.7.60   # MASTER_IP_VALUE 
        10.0.7.61   # BACKUP_IP_VALUE
    }
}
0

In my case, the problem was SELinux. I troubleshot it by the tcpdump command over the interface where the VIP was configured. After flushing the iptables the problem was solved.

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