Someone messed up majorly in setting permissions on an NTFS drive and I'm looking at a way to reset all permissions to default. The OS will be reinstalled but I'm trying to salvage data from their user directories.

None of the data is encrypted at an FS level.

Any recommendation on how to achieve that?

up vote 16 down vote accepted

If you're talking about a disk that doesn't contain a Windows installation, just use the "TAKEOWN" and "ICACLS" utilities:

TAKEOWN /f "X:\" /r /d y
ICACLS "X:\" /reset /T

Then you can reset the ACLs to whatever you want.

If it's a disk with a Windows 2000, XP, or Server 2003 operating system installed (don't know about Vista on this one) you could try re-applying the default security template:

secedit /configure /db secedit.sdb /cfg %SystemRoot%\defltwk.inf /overwrite /verbose

(On a Windows Server install, substitute "defltsv.inf" for "defltwk.inf".)

  • You may want to add these options to the icals command: /C (Continue on file errors) and /Q (suppress success messages). Error messages would still be displayed. – mivk Nov 24 '12 at 11:17
  • 1
    In Win7 x64, I got errors when quoting the drive. And for icacls, I could not specify the drive directly. So I had to use takeown /F X:\ /R /D Y and icacls X:\* /reset /T. – mivk Nov 25 '12 at 11:23

As an alternative to takeown and *cacls you can use SetACL to first take ownership of every file and directory on the drive and then set the desired permissions.

Setting the owner of an entire tree to administrators and enabling inheritance on the child objects:

SetACL.exe -on "C:\" -ot file -actn setprot -op "dacl:np;sacl:nc" 
           -rec cont_obj -actn setowner -ownr "n:S-1-5-32-544;s:y"

Adding full permissions for administrators:

SetACL.exe -on "C:\" -ot file -actn ace -ace "n:S-1-5-32-544;s:y;p:full"

I'm not certain such a thing exists. That said, unless you are imaging the system, the OS can be reinstalled without removing the user data, which will also fix permissions on OS related folders. Depending on what type of system this is and what is available, put the drive into another system and pull the user data off then do the wipe and reinstall.

I've never heard of anything that will "reset" permissions on everything back to a blank slate, unless "restore from backup" counts.

Even if it did, it would need a way to know about who owns what files, as well as registry permissions and other ID information. Chances are it would screw up and you'd have a system that would act weird at random times, unless the program in question had a snapshot of what the state of the machine was when it first which case it's the same as a backup. You would have potentially altered permissions and ID's (security ID's) just by adding users and having installed the OS in the first place on the machine because Windows had certain things in the ACL that are specific to the installation.

Your best bet is to back up user data and wipe the disk and reinstall before copying user data back into the proper folders, then make a backup image of the system.

This is one of the situations where RAID would not help but a good backup can (there are a number of beginning admins who seem to think RAID is a backup; in this situation it wouldn't have helped!)

  • While I would agree that you can't restore any custom security settings, you can re-apply the default security template and get back to OS-default security. – Evan Anderson Aug 12 '09 at 17:42
  • Wouldn't using that potentially cause issues if he had custom security through applications? For some reason I shy away from it because it could cause unexpected behavior down the road...or did this improve? – Bart Silverstrim Aug 12 '09 at 17:59
  • If you've modified the security from default to accomodate some software you'll have to modify it again after you revert back to defaults. To my mind that should be "expected" behaviour. If you change something from default, and then change it back to default, it's back to default again. – Evan Anderson Aug 12 '09 at 18:54

I don't see a way of getting things back to the way they were using only one box, but if you have a second one available, either as a replacement or a temporary staging area (even a PC with a hefty HD will do for temp staging), here's one solution. There are probably short cuts you can take here, but I prefer the slow and meticulous way as it's less prone to human error.

Let's assume that Server A is the one with screwed up permissions, and Server B is either the replacement or the temporary staging area.

  • Restore from the last good backup to Server B (making certain that you select the option to restore security when doing so).
  • On Server A, establish whether or not you can access the data.
    • If not, Take Ownership of everything, either through the GUI or the command-line.
    • Establish whether or not you can access the data now.
    • If not, grant yourself Full Control.
  • Copy the data from Server A to Server B using xcopy /S/E/C/H/R/K/Y. Don't use /O as that will overwrite your restored ACLs.
  • If it's a replacement server you're done. If not, after having rebuilt Server A, copy back to it from Server B, this time using xcopy /S/E/C/H/R/K/O/Y (note /0 is here this time).
  • Have some quiet words in a corner with the person who did it. Baseball bats and threats to revoke their admin rights may or may not be optional, depending on how you feel.

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