how to install the additional packages like gcc, gcc-objc, gcc-g++, make, patch, xorg-x11-base, xorg-x11-devel. The basic package is installed.
The only thing i use setup.exe anymore for is updates and sometimes browsing for packages. Thankfully! Because "apt-cyg" is a god send! This guy over at github seems to stay on top of it, since the google code page died a long time ago. There are a few forks but this one just works great! https://github.com/kou1okada/apt-cyg
Just use it like you would apt-get. Personally i have it switch between cygwinports mirror and standard cygwin repos. Its works splendidly well.
apt-cyg find gcc apt-cyg install gcc apt-cyg install make automake
It solves dependencies, is very fast and works with x86 amd x64. You can switch the mirror it uses with -m options, and then isntantly search for stuff on cygwinports. Moreover it even removes things very well with apt-get remove "package name". It describes packages you have installed and those available via your specified mirrors. If you use cygwin it really is a must.
Cygwin setup.exe installer can be used non-interactively or from command line if you wish:
# installing custom packages setup.exe -q -n -N -d -R c:\cygwin -s http://cygwin_mirror_you_use -l c:\packages mintty,wget,ctags,diffutils
-R is Cygwin root installation directory,
-s Cygwin mirror where to download new packages and
-l where the packages are stored locally. For other options, please check Cygwin FAQ.
Download installer from the site and start it, choose mirror and then packages you want - setup won't break anything, it will install packages you want and update required ones as specified in GUI.