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From man 8 sshd with regards to the Authorized Keys File Format and the command="command" option:

Note that this command may be superseded by either an sshd_config(5) ForceCommand directive or a command embedded in a certificate.

Using ssh-keygen -O force-command="command" allows a command to be embedded in a certificate. But how does one verify that a command has not been embedded in a certificate? Along these same lines of preventing unexpected commands from being executed, does ForceCommand always override a command embedded in a certificate?

Can a malicious user bypass a ssh authorized_keys forced command? asks a more general question about security but currently the answers there do not mention commands embedded in certificates.

  • Which version of ssh/sshd etc is this ? – user9517 Oct 5 '13 at 19:27
  • OpenSSH_5.9p1 Debian-5ubuntu1.1, OpenSSL 1.0.1 14 Mar 2012 and OpenSSH_6.2p2 Debian-6~bpo70+1, OpenSSL 1.0.1e 11 Feb 2013 – Monica For CEO Oct 5 '13 at 19:34
  • And if I understand properly, ssh-keygen -L is for certificates but not for RSA keys. – Monica For CEO Oct 5 '13 at 19:38
  • ssh-keygen -lf shows a fingerprint but not embedded commands. – Monica For CEO Oct 5 '13 at 19:39
  • openssl rsa -in file -text -noout shows modulus and exponents but not embedded commands. – Monica For CEO Oct 5 '13 at 19:42
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The ssh-keygen man page says

-O option

        Specify a certificate option when signing a key.

The -O force-command=command option relates to certificates not keys.

You will need to generate a certificate by signing a key, then you should be able to decode the certificate and see the embedded command.

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