Is there a way on Linux to get statistics about the various reasons packets were dropped?

On all network interfaces (openSUSE 12.3) on several servers, ifconfig and netstat -i are reporting dropped packets at the reception. When I do a tcpdump, the number of dropped packets stop increasing, meaning that the interfaces queues are not full and dropping the data. So there must be other reasons why this is happening (e.g. multicast pkts received whereas the interface is not part of this multicast group).

Where can I find such information? (/proc? /sys? some logs?)

Example of statistics (merge of the /sys/class/net/<dev>/statistics and ethtool output):

alloc_rx_buff_failed: 0
collisions: 0
dropped_smbus: 0
multicast: 1644
rx_align_errors: 0
rx_broadcast: 23626
rx_bytes: 1897203
rx_compressed: 0
rx_crc_errors: 0
rx_csum_offload_errors: 0
rx_csum_offload_good: 0
rx_dropped: 4738
rx_errors: 0
rx_fifo_errors: 0
rx_flow_control_xoff: 0
rx_flow_control_xon: 0
rx_frame_errors: 0
rx_length_errors: 0
rx_long_byte_count: 1998731
rx_long_length_errors: 0
rx_missed_errors: 0
rx_multicast: 1644
rx_no_buffer_count: 0
rx_over_errors: 0
rx_packets: 25382
rx_short_length_errors: 0
rx_smbus: 0
tx_aborted_errors: 0
tx_abort_late_coll: 0
tx_broadcast: 7
tx_bytes: 11300
tx_carrier_errors: 0
tx_compressed: 0
tx_deferred_ok: 0
tx_dropped: 0
tx_errors: 0
tx_fifo_errors: 0
tx_flow_control_xoff: 0
tx_flow_control_xon: 0
tx_heartbeat_errors: 0
tx_multicast: 43
tx_multi_coll_ok: 0
tx_packets: 63
tx_restart_queue: 0
tx_single_coll_ok: 0
tx_smbus: 0
tx_tcp_seg_failed: 0
tx_tcp_seg_good: 0
tx_timeout_count: 0
tx_window_errors: 0

Try /sys/class/net/eth0/statistics/ (i.e. for eth0), it's not perfect but it breaks down errors by transmit/receive and by carrier, window, fifo, crc, frame, length (and a few more) types of errors.

Drops are not the same as "ignored", netstat show interface level statistics, a multicast packet ignored by a higher level (layer 3, the IP stack) won't show as a drop (though it might show up as "filtered" on some NIC stats). Statistics may be complicated somewhat by various offload features.

You can get more stats if you have ethtool:

# ethtool -S eth0
 rx_packets: 60666755
 tx_packets: 2206194
 rx_bytes: 6630349870
 tx_bytes: 815877983
 rx_broadcast: 58230114
 tx_broadcast: 9307
 rx_multicast: 8406
 tx_multicast: 17
 rx_errors: 0
 tx_errors: 0
 tx_dropped: 0
 multicast: 8406
 collisions: 0
 rx_length_errors: 0
 rx_over_errors: 0
 rx_crc_errors: 0
 rx_frame_errors: 0
 rx_no_buffer_count: 0
 rx_missed_errors: 0
 tx_aborted_errors: 0
 tx_carrier_errors: 0
 tx_fifo_errors: 0
 tx_heartbeat_errors: 0

Some statistics depend on the NIC driver, as will the exact meaning. The above is from an Intel e1000. Having looked at handful of drivers, some collect many more statistics than others (the stats available to ethtool tend to be kept in separate source file, e.g. drivers/net/ethernet/intel/e1000/e1000_ethtool.c, if you need to rummage).

ethtool -i eth0 will show the driver details, the output of lspci -v should be more detailed, though with a bit of clutter too.

Update In tg3.c function tg3_rx() there's only one place that looks likely with a tp->rx_dropped++, but the code is littered with gotos, so there are several other causes than the obvious, i.e. anything with goto drop_it or goto drop_it_no_recycle. (Note that the drop counter is one of the few maintained by the driver, the rest are maintained by the device itself.)

The driver source I have to hand is 3.123. My best guess is this code:

           if (len > (tp->dev->mtu + ETH_HLEN) &&
                skb->protocol != htons(ETH_P_8021Q)) {
                    goto drop_it_no_recycle;

Check the MTU, possible causes are jumbo frames, or slightly oversized ethernet frames to allow for encapsulation. I cannot explain why tcpdump might change the behaviour, it's not known to change the interface MTU. Note also that you may "see" packets larger then the MTU with tcpdump if TSO/LRO is enabled (explanation).

  • Thank you for your proposed answer. The information given by the sysfs statistics dir or by ethtool -S is similar (at least on my system) and I get only the information about the number of dropped packets. I will update my post with the output. – Huygens Dec 13 '13 at 13:07
  • I have checked the driver source code (tg3.c) and found only reference to drops for VLAN error and incorrect socket buffer length. I don't know what to conclude from that yet... – Huygens Dec 13 '13 at 14:09
  • Thanks for the update, sadly I cannot +1 a second time ;-) I will have a look if tcpdump is reporting jumbo frames or frames bigger than my MTU (1500). – Huygens Dec 13 '13 at 16:01
  • I do have TSO and LRO 'on'. Tcpdump does report frames bigger than my MTU, but I would need to see if this is due to the LRO... I will see on Monday. Time to be on week-end now. – Huygens Dec 13 '13 at 16:51
  • 1
    If tg3 is a module and you really want to get to the bottom of it you can use the printk()-like netdev_info() to record some events, there are instances already in the code for you to copy. See include/linux/skbuff.h for the sk_buff structure (not for the faint of heart). Sprinkle a few calls at the relevant places in tg3_rx(), rebuild and reload the module, and wait... – mr.spuratic Dec 18 '13 at 18:13

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