I'm having this issue with two Server 2008 R2 domain member servers built as VMWare guests. The DCs built at the same time do not have this issue.
When I try to ping 127.0.0.1 (or "localhost") when logged on with a domain (admin) account, I get an error saying "Unable to contact IP driver. General failure." However, if I'm logged on as the local Administrator account, it works fine.
I've tried resetting the TCP/IP stack with
netsh int ip reset and rebooting. Makes no difference.
However, pinging the default gateway, its own IP and other hosts are just fine as the domain user.