Looking at the aws cli, I only see the versioning functionality exposed in the s3api section, not in the s3 section.
From what I've understood it's only possible to fetch previous versions of objects based on their version id.
By default, the GET operation returns the current version of an
object. To return a different version, use the versionId subresource.
See http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/API/RESTObjectGET.html for examples and additional details
To solve what you're asking for my understanding is that, unless you have been tracking the version ids yourself, you will need to fetch a list of the versions first to determine which ones to get.
You can use the versions subresource to list metadata about all of the versions of objects in a bucket. You can also use request parameters as selection criteria to return metadata about a subset of all the object versions.
See http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/API/RESTBucketGETVersion.html for details.
That response would have data like the following for each version that matches your query:
In terms of the aws cli this would be
aws s3api get-object --version-id ... and
aws s3api list-object-versions ... respectively for the API calls mentioned above.