TempDb and Swap/Page file are great options.
I wouldn't put the main IIS or App logs on instance storage. They might be needed after some issues that requires you to Force Stop the server. But if you are fine with losing it, go ahead and do it.
I have put app logs for temporary checks on instance storage though. But they are enabled with a flag only and are almost never used.
ASP.NET Temp file.
I have also used it for storing temporary upload files of web application and doing some quick pre-process, before moving them to more permanent place. If any failures, the client could try to reupload.
Obviously, more complex scenarios/pre-process might need a different architecture.
If using a server with instance-storage as a Build server, temporary build files could also be there.
Lastly, and I haven't tries this, if you have relatively small or readonly DBs that doesn't change much and can be safely reconstructed from a nightly backup, one could consider putting it there. But you might need good startup script.