I use a 4096 byte RSA PGP key; since SSH also uses the RSA standard, is it at all possible to use the PGP key as an SSH key without installing additional software on the server (and as little as possible on the client)?
SSH2 Version 2.0.13 introduced support for PGP authentication.
With the information from the answers on this question and the help of the gnupg-users mailinglist I was able to figure out how to use my GPG key for SSH authentication. There are a few possible methods to do this.
I have written a blogpost about some possible solutions: http://budts.be/weblog/2012/08/ssh-authentication-with-your-pgp-key
To summarize: Either you use GnuPG 2.1, which is currently in beta. When using this version, you can simply start gpg-agent with the --enable-ssh-support option and add the keygrip for you GPG key (or subkey) into ~/.gnupg/sshcontrol.
When you are using the current stable GnuPG version (2.0.x) you can use monkeysphere to add your key to gpg-agent (again, after starting gpg-agent with the --enable-ssh-support option).
It is also possible to use GNOME keyring (or even the regular ssh-agent) with the help of monkeysphere. The only problem in this case is that you will have to re-add your key when logging on again (into Gnome or XFCE). To solve this you can manually export your key and convert it.
This document shows how to do it on the SSH.com client; I am not sure that it works on OpenSSH but it might be worth a shot.