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$ apt-get install openssh-server fails with Segmentation fault when it attempts to generate keys.

This leaves me with a half-complete installation, but the binaries are in place.

I also notice that simple executing sshd or ssh-keygen also produces a Segmentation fault.

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Running debsums indicates that some files have different checksum from the files provided by the debian packages.

$ debsums -s

indicates that libk5crypto.so.3.1 and libcrypto.so.1.0.0 (and a few more) have status FAILED.

You will want to replace these files with files provided by the debian packages. To find out what package owns a file:

$ dpkg --search /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libk5crypto.so.3.1

This tells us that this file is provided by libk5crypto3. (running the command with libcrypto.so.1.0.0 tells us that it is provided by the libssl1.0.0 package)

Then, simply reinstall the package(s):

$ sudo apt-get --reinstall install libk5crypto3 libssl1.0.0

Then, attempt to reinstall openssh:

$ sudo apt-get purge openssh-server
$ sudo apt-get install openssh-server

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