On my staging server, I have
Nginx. They are on port
Given that I have to install
jenkins, on which port I have to bind it ? (which is usually 8080 but it's already taken)
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Configure it to run on any port you like! 81. 8081. Anything really.
Considering that Jenkins normally should not be run as root, you can take anything starting from 1024 upwards, because <1024 is reserved for root only.
I'd probably put it on port 9000, then use Nginx as a reverse proxy to map Jenkins.yourdomain.com to port 9000.
That way you'll get the bonus of being able to let Nginx do SSL too!
As @Drew correctly pointed out, you can pick any port that isn't already used.
However, it is common for Web servers and such (including Web interfaces) to listen on ports 80, 8000 or 8080. If you're setting up a Web interface, as I suspect (I don't know of Jenkins, but I see it listens on port 8080 by default), you might prefer port 8000. There's no real advantage; it's just a common practice.