I know this question will be very simple for most of you but as I am trying to wrap my head around it, I am still a little confused and haven't been able to find anything that flat out says what I'm looking for. After I have a Domain Controller set up, when I connect to that domain from a client PC, Is the only thing that the domain controller is doing is controlling my user account rights (when I say only thing, I know there is a lot more that a DC does but I'm only concerned about this small piece that it does). In regards to this question, when I log into the domain, am I still seeing all of the files and programs that are on the local client I am using, or is it similar to connecting remotely where I will see everything that is on the Domain Controller? I am wanting to be able to connect with remote desktop services from the clients to the server and be able to run all of the programs from the actual server so this question has been formed so that I know whether or not just connecting to the domain will achieve this for me or if I do in fact need to actually remote in every time.
(I'm going to take a stab even though I'm not sure what you mean.)
When you logon to a PC that's joined to a domain with a domain user account you're still just using that PC. You're not making a Remote Desktop connection to a Domain Controller (DC) by logging-in on a domain-joined PC with a domain user account. Any programs you open will still be executing on the CPU and in the RAM of the client PC you logged-on to.