7

In the C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\MachineKeys directory there's an enumeration of Key Containers. The naming convention is <uniqueGUID>_<staticGUID> and I presume the <staticGUID> to be a machine identifier. Ultimately I want to be able to pair the Key Container with it's respective cert so I can target specific Key Files for ACL's. To do that I need to know how the <uniqueGUID> is derived and how it relates to certificates.

The Microsoft resources I've checked so far haven't elucidated an answer, but are great for reference:

Understanding Machine-Level and User-Level RSA Key Containers (IIS reference)

How to: Change the Security Permissions for the MachineKeys Directory

11

To solve your problem of finding which certificate goes with which key file for the purpose of modifying file system ACLs on the private key files, use this:

PS C:\Users\Ryan> $Cert = Get-Item Cert:\LocalMachine\My\2F6CB7D56BAA752BCCC0829DD829C0E2662FA1C6    

PS C:\Users\Ryan> $Cert.PrivateKey.CspKeyContainerInfo.UniqueKeyContainerName

fad662b360941f26a1193357aab3c12d_03f917b5-cb8b-45bd-b884-41c139a66ff7

The file naming convention is x_y, where x is a random GUID to uniquely identify the key, and y is the machine GUID found at HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Cryptography.

Some of these unique identifiers are well-known, such as some of these IIS ones:

6de9cb26d2b98c01ec4e9e8b34824aa2_GUID      iisConfigurationKey

d6d986f09a1ee04e24c949879fdb506c_GUID      NetFrameworkConfigurationKey

76944fb33636aeddb9590521c2e8815a_GUID      iisWasKey

But others are generated randomly.

Note that this information only applies to "Local Computer" or "Machine" certificates/keys. User certificates are stored in the corresponding user-specific locations on the file system and registry.

6

Ryan Ries provided only partial solution, because it won't work on CNG keys. The following code will retrieve container name (hence, file name too) for CNG keys:

$signature = @"
[DllImport("Crypt32.dll", SetLastError = true, CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
public static extern bool CertGetCertificateContextProperty(
    IntPtr pCertContext,
    uint dwPropId,
    IntPtr pvData,
    ref uint pcbData
);
[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet=CharSet.Unicode)]
public struct CRYPT_KEY_PROV_INFO {
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
    public string pwszContainerName;
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
    public string pwszProvName;
    public uint dwProvType;
    public uint dwFlags;
    public uint cProvParam;
    public IntPtr rgProvParam;
    public uint dwKeySpec;
}
[DllImport("ncrypt.dll", SetLastError = true)]
public static extern int NCryptOpenStorageProvider(
    ref IntPtr phProvider,
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
    string pszProviderName,
    uint dwFlags
);
[DllImport("ncrypt.dll", SetLastError = true)]
public static extern int NCryptOpenKey(
    IntPtr hProvider,
    ref IntPtr phKey,
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
    string pszKeyName,
    uint dwLegacyKeySpec,
    uint dwFlags
);
[DllImport("ncrypt.dll", SetLastError = true)]
public static extern int NCryptGetProperty(
    IntPtr hObject,
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
    string pszProperty,
    byte[] pbOutput,
    int cbOutput,
    ref int pcbResult,
    int dwFlags
);
[DllImport("ncrypt.dll", CharSet=CharSet.Auto, SetLastError=true)]
public static extern int NCryptFreeObject(
    IntPtr hObject
);
"@
Add-Type -MemberDefinition $signature -Namespace PKI -Name Tools

$CERT_KEY_PROV_INFO_PROP_ID = 0x2 # from Wincrypt.h header file
$cert = dir cert:\currentuser\my\C541C66F490413302C845A440AFA24E98A231C3C
$pcbData = 0
[void][PKI.Tools]::CertGetCertificateContextProperty($cert.Handle,$CERT_KEY_PROV_INFO_PROP_ID,[IntPtr]::Zero,[ref]$pcbData)
$pvData = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($pcbData)
[PKI.Tools]::CertGetCertificateContextProperty($cert.Handle,$CERT_KEY_PROV_INFO_PROP_ID,$pvData,[ref]$pcbData)
$keyProv = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($pvData,[type][PKI.Tools+CRYPT_KEY_PROV_INFO])
[Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::FreeHGlobal($pvData)
$phProvider = [IntPtr]::Zero
[void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptOpenStorageProvider([ref]$phProvider,$keyProv.pwszProvName,0)
$phKey = [IntPtr]::Zero
[void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptOpenKey($phProvider,[ref]$phKey,$keyProv.pwszContainerName,0,0)
$pcbResult = 0
[void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptGetProperty($phKey,"Unique Name",$null,0,[ref]$pcbResult,0)
$pbOutput = New-Object byte[] -ArgumentList $pcbResult
[void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptGetProperty($phKey,"Unique Name",$pbOutput,$pbOutput.length,[ref]$pcbResult,0)
[Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString($pbOutput)
[void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptFreeObject($phProvider)
[void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptFreeObject($phKey)
  • 1
    +1. Fair enough. My answer covers only from a CryptoAPI perspective, and not CNG. But on the other hand, OP didn't ask about CNG. Had OP said something about %ALLUSERSPROFILE%\Application Data\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\S-1-5-18\ in his question, then my answer would have been different. Nevertheless, completeness is always welcome! For OP, msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/… – Ryan Ries Nov 5 '14 at 18:49
0

I used CryptoGuy's code, expanded upon it significantly, and turned it into a function. It still has room for improvement, however. Thanks, CryptoGuy!

function Get-KeyContainer {
  [CmdletBinding()]
  Param([Parameter(Position=0, Mandatory=$true, ValueFromPipeline=$true)] [string]$Thumbprint,
        [Parameter(Position=1, Mandatory=$false, ValueFromPipeline=$false)] [switch]$MachineStore)

  $MemberDefinition=@"
  [DllImport("Crypt32.dll", SetLastError = true, CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
  public static extern bool CertGetCertificateContextProperty(
    IntPtr pCertContext,
    uint dwPropId,
    IntPtr pvData,
    ref uint pcbData);

  [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet=CharSet.Unicode)]
  public struct CRYPT_KEY_PROV_INFO {
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] public string pwszContainerName;
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] public string pwszProvName;
    public uint dwProvType;
    public uint dwFlags;
    public uint cProvParam;
    public IntPtr rgProvParam;
    public uint dwKeySpec;}

  [DllImport("ncrypt.dll", SetLastError = true)]
  public static extern int NCryptOpenStorageProvider(
    ref IntPtr phProvider,
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string pszProviderName,
    uint dwFlags);

  [DllImport("ncrypt.dll", SetLastError = true)]
  public static extern int NCryptOpenKey(
    IntPtr hProvider,
    ref IntPtr phKey,
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string pszKeyName,
    uint dwLegacyKeySpec,
    uint dwFlags);

  [DllImport("ncrypt.dll", SetLastError = true)]
  public static extern int NCryptGetProperty(
    IntPtr hObject,
    [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)] string pszProperty,
    byte[] pbOutput,
    int cbOutput,
    ref int pcbResult,
    int dwFlags);

  [DllImport("ncrypt.dll", CharSet=CharSet.Auto, SetLastError=true)]
  public static extern int NCryptFreeObject(IntPtr hObject);
"@
  Add-Type -MemberDefinition $MemberDefinition -Namespace PKI -Name Tools

  $CERT_KEY_PROV_INFO_PROP_ID = 0x2 # from Wincrypt.h header file
  # from Ncrypt.h header file
  if ($MachineStore.IsPresent) { $NCRYPT_MACHINE_KEY_FLAG = 0x20 }
  else { $NCRYPT_MACHINE_KEY_FLAG = 0 }

  $cert=Get-Item -Path ("Cert:\LocalMachine\My\"+$Thumbprint)
  $pcbData = 0
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::CertGetCertificateContextProperty($cert.Handle,$CERT_KEY_PROV_INFO_PROP_ID,[IntPtr]::Zero,[ref]$pcbData)
  if ($result -ne $true) {
    switch ($result) {
      -2146885628 { Write-Error "ERROR:  CRYPT_E_NOT_FOUND 0x80092004 (-2146885628)`r`nThe certificate does not have the specified property." }
      -2005270525 { Write-Error "ERROR:  ERROR_MORE_DATA 0x887A0003 (-2005270525)`r`nIf the buffer specified by the pvData parameter is not large enough to hold the returned data, the function sets the ERROR_MORE_DATA code and stores the required buffer size, in bytes, in the variable pointed to by pcbData." }
    }
    exit
  }
  $pvData = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($pcbData)
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::CertGetCertificateContextProperty($cert.Handle,$CERT_KEY_PROV_INFO_PROP_ID,$pvData,[ref]$pcbData)
  if ($result -ne $true) {
    switch ($result) {
      -2146885628 { Write-Error "ERROR:  CRYPT_E_NOT_FOUND 0x80092004 (-2146885628)`r`nThe certificate does not have the specified property." }
      -2005270525 { Write-Error "ERROR:  ERROR_MORE_DATA 0x887A0003 (-2005270525)`r`nIf the buffer specified by the pvData parameter is not large enough to hold the returned data, the function sets the ERROR_MORE_DATA code and stores the required buffer size, in bytes, in the variable pointed to by pcbData." }
    }
    exit
  }
  $keyProv = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($pvData,[type][PKI.Tools+CRYPT_KEY_PROV_INFO])
  [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::FreeHGlobal($pvData)
  $phProvider = [IntPtr]::Zero
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::NCryptOpenStorageProvider([ref]$phProvider,$keyProv.pwszProvName,0)
  if ($result -ne 0) {
    switch ($result) {
      -2146893815 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_BAD_FLAGS 0x80090009 (-2146893815)`r`nInvalid flags specified" }
      -2146893785 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_PARAMETER 0x80090027 (-2146893785)`r`nThe parameter is incorrect" }
      -2146893810 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_NO_MEMORY 0x8009000E (-2146893810)`r`nInsufficient memory available for the operation" }
    }
    exit
  }
  $phKey = [IntPtr]::Zero
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::NCryptOpenKey($phProvider,[ref]$phKey,$keyProv.pwszContainerName,0,$NCRYPT_MACHINE_KEY_FLAG)
  if ($result -ne 0) {
    switch ($result) {
      -2146893815 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_BAD_FLAGS 0x80090009 (-2146893815)`r`nThe dwFlags parameter contains a value that is not valid." }
      -2146893802 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_BAD_KEYSET 0x80090016 (-2146893802)`r`nThe specified key was not found.  Try using the -MachineKey flag to look in the Machine's store instead of the User's store." }
      -2146893786 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_HANDLE 0x80090026 (-2146893786)`r`nThe hProvider parameter is not valid." }
      -2146893785 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_PARAMETER 0x80090027 (-2146893785)`r`nThe parameter is incorrect" }
      -2146893810 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_NO_MEMORY 0x8009000E (-2146893810)`r`nInsufficient memory available for the operation" }
    }
    exit
  }
  $pcbResult = 0
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::NCryptGetProperty($phKey,"Unique Name",$null,0,[ref]$pcbResult,0)
  if ($result -ne 0) {
    switch ($result) {
      -2146893815 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_BAD_FLAGS 0x80090009 (-2146893815)`r`nThe dwFlags parameter contains a value that is not valid." }
      -2146893786 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_HANDLE 0x80090026 (-2146893786)`r`nThe hProvider parameter is not valid." }
      -2146893785 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_PARAMETER 0x80090027 (-2146893785)`r`nThe parameter is incorrect" }
      -2146893810 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_NO_MEMORY 0x8009000E (-2146893810)`r`nInsufficient memory available for the operation" }
      -2146893783 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_NOT_SUPPORTED 0x80090029 (-2146893783)`r`nThe specified property is not supported for the object." }
    }
    exit
  }
  $pbOutput = New-Object byte[] -ArgumentList $pcbResult
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::NCryptGetProperty($phKey,"Unique Name",$pbOutput,$pbOutput.length,[ref]$pcbResult,0)
  if ($result -ne 0) {
    switch ($result) {
      -2146893815 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_BAD_FLAGS 0x80090009 (-2146893815)`r`nThe dwFlags parameter contains a value that is not valid." }
      -2146893786 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_HANDLE 0x80090026 (-2146893786)`r`nThe hProvider parameter is not valid." }
      -2146893785 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_PARAMETER 0x80090027 (-2146893785)`r`nThe parameter is incorrect" }
      -2146893810 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_NO_MEMORY 0x8009000E (-2146893810)`r`nInsufficient memory available for the operation" }
      -2146893783 { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_NOT_SUPPORTED 0x80090029 (-2146893783)`r`nThe specified property is not supported for the object." }
    }
    exit
  }
  [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString($pbOutput)
  $result=[PKI.Tools]::NCryptFreeObject($phProvider)
  if ($result -ne 0) { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_HANDLE 0x80090026 (-2146893786)`r`nThe hProvider parameter is not valid."; exit }
  [void][PKI.Tools]::NCryptFreeObject($phKey)
  if ($result -ne 0) { Write-Error "ERROR:  NTE_INVALID_HANDLE 0x80090026 (-2146893786)`r`nThe hProvider parameter is not valid."; exit }
}

Get-KeyContainer -Thumbprint "xxxxxxxxx" -MachineStore

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.