I'm having a similar problem to this question, using AD FS for SSO (2 ASP.NET sites and a handful of WCFs). On login, users hit a 302 redirect loop, although when the browser stops the loop and the user manually types in the site's URL, their login has completed successfully. I haven't been able to find a trigger for this behaviour, although KB3003381 was recently applied to the system. I have been unable to reproduce this on our test system.
This issue is currently on a production system, so disabling the certificate checks is not an option. This answer mentions a hotfix, but when we applied this to our test system it actually caused the redirect loop to occur!
I'm running AD FS 2.1 on Server 2012. We also have SecurEnvoy providing 2FA.
Sorry for making a new question, but I don't have the rep here to comment. Any help is greatly appreciated!