I've done some changes to the file /etc/fail2ban/jail.local (a copy of /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf) and saved, but now fail2ban doesn't start. If I erase jail.local, then it start again. So the problem is in this file (jail.local) but after 2 hours loking for the problem, I really don't know where is the mistake.

Please, can someone help me to find the problem(s)? Thank you.

This is the file

#
# WARNING: heavily refactored in 0.9.0 release.  Please review and
#          customize settings for your setup.
#
# Changes:  in most of the cases you should not modify this
#           file, but provide customizations in jail.local file,
#           or separate .conf files under jail.d/ directory, e.g.:
#
# HOW TO ACTIVATE JAILS:
#
# YOU SHOULD NOT MODIFY THIS FILE.
#
# It will probably be overwritten or improved in a distribution update.
#
# Provide customizations in a jail.local file or a jail.d/customisation.local.
# For example to change the default bantime for all jails and to enable the
# ssh-iptables jail the following (uncommented) would appear in the .local file.
# See man 5 jail.conf for details.
#
# [DEFAULT]
# bantime = 3600
#
# [sshd]
# enabled = true
#
# See jail.conf(5) man page for more information



# Comments: use '#' for comment lines and ';' (following a space) for inline comments


[INCLUDES]

#before = paths-distro.conf
before = paths-fedora.conf

# The DEFAULT allows a global definition of the options. They can be overridden
# in each jail afterwards.

[DEFAULT]

#
# MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
#

# "ignoreip" can be an IP address, a CIDR mask or a DNS host. Fail2ban will not
# ban a host which matches an address in this list. Several addresses can be
# defined using space separator.
ignoreip = 127.0.0.1/8 199.27.128.0/21 173.245.48.0/20 103.21.244.0/22 103.22.200.0/22 103.31.4.0/22 141.101.64.0/18 108.162.192.0/18 190.93.240.0/20 188.114.96.0/20 197.234.240.0/22 198.41.128.0/17 162.158.0.0/15 104.16.0.0/12


# External command that will take an tagged arguments to ignore, e.g. <ip>,
# and return true if the IP is to be ignored. False otherwise.
#
# ignorecommand = /path/to/command <ip>
ignorecommand =

# "bantime" is the number of seconds that a host is banned.
bantime  = 2700000

# A host is banned if it has generated "maxretry" during the last "findtime"
# seconds.
findtime  = 600

# "maxretry" is the number of failures before a host get banned.
maxretry = 5

# "backend" specifies the backend used to get files modification.
# Available options are "pyinotify", "gamin", "polling", "systemd" and "auto".
# This option can be overridden in each jail as well.
#
# pyinotify: requires pyinotify (a file alteration monitor) to be installed.
#              If pyinotify is not installed, Fail2ban will use auto.
# gamin:     requires Gamin (a file alteration monitor) to be installed.
#              If Gamin is not installed, Fail2ban will use auto.
# polling:   uses a polling algorithm which does not require external libraries.
# systemd:   uses systemd python library to access the systemd journal.
#              Specifying "logpath" is not valid for this backend.
#              See "journalmatch" in the jails associated filter config
# auto:      will try to use the following backends, in order:
#              pyinotify, gamin, polling.
backend = auto

# "usedns" specifies if jails should trust hostnames in logs,
#   warn when DNS lookups are performed, or ignore all hostnames in logs
#
# yes:   if a hostname is encountered, a DNS lookup will be performed.
# warn:  if a hostname is encountered, a DNS lookup will be performed,
#        but it will be logged as a warning.
# no:    if a hostname is encountered, will not be used for banning,
#        but it will be logged as info.
usedns = warn

# "logencoding" specifies the encoding of the log files handled by the jail
#   This is used to decode the lines from the log file.
#   Typical examples:  "ascii", "utf-8"
#
#   auto:   will use the system locale setting
logencoding = auto

# "enabled" enables the jails.
#  By default all jails are disabled, and it should stay this way.
#  Enable only relevant to your setup jails in your .local or jail.d/*.conf
#
# true:  jail will be enabled and log files will get monitored for changes
# false: jail is not enabled
enabled = false


# "filter" defines the filter to use by the jail.
#  By default jails have names matching their filter name
#
filter = %(__name__)s


#
# ACTIONS
#

# Some options used for actions

# Destination email address used solely for the interpolations in
# jail.{conf,local,d/*} configuration files.
destemail = root@localhost

# Sender email address used solely for some actions
sender = root@localhost

# E-mail action. Since 0.8.1 Fail2Ban uses sendmail MTA for the
# mailing. Change mta configuration parameter to mail if you want to
# revert to conventional 'mail'.
mta = sendmail

# Default protocol
protocol = tcp

# Specify chain where jumps would need to be added in iptables-* actions
chain = INPUT

# Ports to be banned
# Usually should be overridden in a particular jail
port = 0:65535

#
# Action shortcuts. To be used to define action parameter

# Default banning action (e.g. iptables, iptables-new,
# iptables-multiport, shorewall, etc) It is used to define
# action_* variables. Can be overridden globally or per
# section within jail.local file
banaction = iptables-multiport

# The simplest action to take: ban only
action_ = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s, bantime="%(bantime)s", port="%(port)s", protocol="%(protocol)s", chain="%(chain)s"]

# ban & send an e-mail with whois report to the destemail.
action_mw = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s, bantime="%(bantime)s", port="%(port)s", protocol="%(protocol)s", chain="%(chain)s"]
            %(mta)s-whois[name=%(__name__)s, dest="%(destemail)s", protocol="%(protocol)s", chain="%(chain)s"]

# ban & send an e-mail with whois report and relevant log lines
# to the destemail.
action_mwl = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s, bantime="%(bantime)s", port="%(port)s", protocol="%(protocol)s", chain="%(chain)s"]
             %(mta)s-whois-lines[name=%(__name__)s, dest="%(destemail)s", logpath=%(logpath)s, chain="%(chain)s"]

# See the IMPORTANT note in action.d/xarf-login-attack for when to use this action
#
# ban & send a xarf e-mail to abuse contact of IP address and include relevant log lines
# to the destemail.
action_xarf = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s, bantime="%(bantime)s", port="%(port)s", protocol="%(protocol)s", chain="%(chain)s"]
             xarf-login-attack[service=%(__name__)s, sender="%(sender)s", logpath=%(logpath)s, port="%(port)s"]


# Report block via blocklist.de fail2ban reporting service API
# 
# See the IMPORTANT note in action.d/blocklist_de.conf for when to
# use this action. Create a file jail.d/blocklist_de.local containing
# [Init]
# blocklist_de_apikey = {api key from registration]
#
action_blocklist_de  = blocklist_de[email="%(sender)s", service=%(filter)s, apikey="%(blocklist_de_apikey)s"]

# Report ban via badips.com, and use as blacklist
#
# See BadIPsAction docstring in config/action.d/badips.py for
# documentation for this action.
#
# NOTE: This action relies on banaction being present on start and therefore
# should be last action defined for a jail.
#
action_badips = badips.py[category="%(name)s", banaction="%(banaction)s"]

# Choose default action.  To change, just override value of 'action' with the
# interpolation to the chosen action shortcut (e.g.  action_mw, action_mwl, etc) in jail.local
# globally (section [DEFAULT]) or per specific section
action = %(action_)s


#
# JAILS
#

#
# SSH servers
#

[sshd]
enabled = true
port    = ssh
filter = sshd
logpath = %(sshd_log)s
maxretry = 5


[sshd-ddos]
# This jail corresponds to the standard configuration in Fail2ban.
# The mail-whois action send a notification e-mail with a whois request
# in the body.
enabled = true
port    = ssh
filter = sshd-ddos
logpath = %(sshd_log)s
maxretry = 5


[dropbear]

port     = ssh
logpath  = %(dropbear_log)s


[selinux-ssh]

port     = ssh
logpath  = %(auditd_log)s
maxretry = 5


#
# HTTP servers
#

[apache-auth]
enabled = true
port     = http,https
filter = apache-auth
logpath  = %(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 5


[apache-badbots]
# Ban hosts which agent identifies spammer robots crawling the web
# for email addresses. The mail outputs are buffered.
port     = http,https
logpath  = %(apache_access_log)s
bantime  = 172800
maxretry = 1


[apache-noscript]
enabled = true
port     = http,https
filter = apache-noscript
logpath  = %(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 6


[apache-overflows]
enabled = true
port     = http,https
filter = apache-overflows
logpath  = %(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 3


[apache-nohome]

port     = http,https
logpath  = %(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 2


[apache-botsearch]

port     = http,https
logpath  = %(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 2


[apache-modsecurity]

port     = http,https
logpath  = %(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 2

[apache-shellshock]
enabled = true
port    = http,https
filter = apache-shellshock
logpath = $(apache_error_log)s
maxretry = 1

[nginx-http-auth]

ports   = http,https
logpath = %(nginx_error_log)s


# Ban attackers that try to use PHP's URL-fopen() functionality
# through GET/POST variables. - Experimental, with more than a year
# of usage in production environments.

[php-url-fopen]

port    = http,https
logpath = %(nginx_access_log)s
          %(apache_access_log)s


[suhosin]

port    = http,https
logpath = %(suhosin_log)s


[lighttpd-auth]
# Same as above for Apache's mod_auth
# It catches wrong authentifications
port    = http,https
logpath = %(lighttpd_error_log)s


#
# Webmail and groupware servers
#

[roundcube-auth]

port     = http,https
logpath  = /var/log/roundcube/userlogins


[openwebmail]

port     = http,https
logpath  = /var/log/openwebmail.log


[horde]

port     = http,https
logpath  = /var/log/horde/horde.log


[groupoffice]

port     = http,https
logpath  = /home/groupoffice/log/info.log


[sogo-auth]
# Monitor SOGo groupware server
# without proxy this would be:
# port    = 20000
port     = http,https
logpath  = /var/log/sogo/sogo.log


[tine20]

logpath  = /var/log/tine20/tine20.log
port     = http,https
maxretry = 5


#
# Web Applications
#
#

[guacamole]

port     = http,https
logpath  = /var/log/tomcat*/catalina.out

[monit]
#Ban clients brute-forcing the monit gui login
filter   = monit
port = 2812
logpath  = /var/log/monit


[webmin-auth]
enabled = true
port    = 10000
filter = webmin-auth
logpath = %(syslog_authpriv)s
maxretry = 5


#
# HTTP Proxy servers
#
#

[squid]

port     =  80,443,3128,8080
logpath = /var/log/squid/access.log


[3proxy]

port    = 3128
logpath = /var/log/3proxy.log

#
# FTP servers
#


[proftpd]
enabled = true
port     = ftp,ftp-data,ftps,ftps-data
filter = proftpd
logpath  = %(proftpd_log)s
maxretry = 5


[pure-ftpd]

port     = ftp,ftp-data,ftps,ftps-data
logpath  = %(pureftpd_log)s
maxretry = 6


[gssftpd]

port     = ftp,ftp-data,ftps,ftps-data
logpath  = %(syslog_daemon)s
maxretry = 6


[wuftpd]

port     = ftp,ftp-data,ftps,ftps-data
logpath  = %(wuftpd_log)s
maxretry = 6


[vsftpd]
# or overwrite it in jails.local to be
# logpath = %(syslog_authpriv)s
# if you want to rely on PAM failed login attempts
# vsftpd's failregex should match both of those formats
port     = ftp,ftp-data,ftps,ftps-data
logpath  = %(vsftpd_log)s


#
# Mail servers
#

# ASSP SMTP Proxy Jail
[assp]

port     = smtp,465,submission
logpath  = /root/path/to/assp/logs/maillog.txt


[courier-smtp]

port     = smtp,465,submission
logpath  = %(syslog_mail)s


[postfix]
enabled = true
port     = smtp,465,submission
logpath  = %(postfix_log)s


[sendmail-auth]
enabled = true
port    = submission,465,smtp
logpath = %(syslog_mail)s


[sendmail-reject]
enabled = true
port     = smtp,465,submission
logpath  = %(syslog_mail)s


[qmail-rbl]

filter  = qmail
port    = smtp,465,submission
logpath = /service/qmail/log/main/current


# dovecot defaults to logging to the mail syslog facility
# but can be set by syslog_facility in the dovecot configuration.
[dovecot]
enabled = true
port    = pop3,pop3s,imap,imaps,submission,465,sieve
logpath = %(dovecot_log)s


[sieve]

port   = smtp,465,submission
logpath = %(dovecot_log)s


[solid-pop3d]

port    = pop3,pop3s
logpath = %(solidpop3d_log)s


[exim]

port   = smtp,465,submission
logpath = %(exim_main_log)s


[exim-spam]

port   = smtp,465,submission
logpath = %(exim_main_log)s


[kerio]

port    = imap,smtp,imaps,465
logpath = /opt/kerio/mailserver/store/logs/security.log


#
# Mail servers authenticators: might be used for smtp,ftp,imap servers, so
# all relevant ports get banned
#

[courier-auth]

port     = smtp,465,submission,imap3,imaps,pop3,pop3s
logpath  = %(syslog_mail)s


[postfix-sasl]

port     = smtp,465,submission,imap3,imaps,pop3,pop3s
# You might consider monitoring /var/log/mail.warn instead if you are
# running postfix since it would provide the same log lines at the
# "warn" level but overall at the smaller filesize.
logpath  = %(postfix_log)s


[perdition]

port   = imap3,imaps,pop3,pop3s
logpath = %(syslog_mail)s


[squirrelmail]

port = smtp,465,submission,imap2,imap3,imaps,pop3,pop3s,http,https,socks
logpath = /var/lib/squirrelmail/prefs/squirrelmail_access_log


[cyrus-imap]

port   = imap3,imaps
logpath = %(syslog_mail)s


[uwimap-auth]

port   = imap3,imaps
logpath = %(syslog_mail)s


#
#
# DNS servers
#


# !!! WARNING !!!
#   Since UDP is connection-less protocol, spoofing of IP and imitation
#   of illegal actions is way too simple.  Thus enabling of this filter
#   might provide an easy way for implementing a DoS against a chosen
#   victim. See
#    http://nion.modprobe.de/blog/archives/690-fail2ban-+-dns-fail.html
#   Please DO NOT USE this jail unless you know what you are doing.
#
# IMPORTANT: see filter.d/named-refused for instructions to enable logging
# This jail blocks UDP traffic for DNS requests.
# [named-refused-udp]
#
# filter   = named-refused
# port     = domain,953
# protocol = udp
# logpath  = /var/log/named/security.log

# IMPORTANT: see filter.d/named-refused for instructions to enable logging
# This jail blocks TCP traffic for DNS requests.

[named-refused]

port     = domain,953
logpath  = /var/log/named/security.log


[nsd]

port     = 53
action   = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-tcp, port="%(port)s", protocol="tcp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-tcp]
           %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-udp, port="%(port)s", protocol="udp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-udp]
logpath = /var/log/nsd.log


#
# Miscellaneous
#

[asterisk]

port     = 5060,5061
action   = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-tcp, port="%(port)s", protocol="tcp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-tcp]
           %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-udp, port="%(port)s", protocol="udp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-udp]
           %(mta)s-whois[name=%(__name__)s, dest="%(destemail)s"]
logpath  = /var/log/asterisk/messages
maxretry = 10


[freeswitch]

port     = 5060,5061
action   = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-tcp, port="%(port)s", protocol="tcp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-tcp]
           %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-udp, port="%(port)s", protocol="udp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-udp]
           %(mta)s-whois[name=%(__name__)s, dest="%(destemail)s"]
logpath  = /var/log/freeswitch.log
maxretry = 10


# To log wrong MySQL access attempts add to /etc/my.cnf in [mysqld] or
# equivalent section:
# log-warning = 2
#
# for syslog (daemon facility)
# [mysqld_safe]
# syslog
#
# for own logfile
# [mysqld]
# log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log
[mysqld-auth]

port     = 3306
logpath  = %(mysql_log)s
maxretry = 5


# Jail for more extended banning of persistent abusers
# !!! WARNING !!!
#   Make sure that your loglevel specified in fail2ban.conf/.local
#   is not at DEBUG level -- which might then cause fail2ban to fall into
#   an infinite loop constantly feeding itself with non-informative lines
[recidive]

logpath  = /var/log/fail2ban.log
port     = all
protocol = all
bantime  = 604800  ; 1 week
findtime = 86400   ; 1 day
maxretry = 5


# Generic filter for PAM. Has to be used with action which bans all
# ports such as iptables-allports, shorewall

[pam-generic]
# pam-generic filter can be customized to monitor specific subset of 'tty's
banaction = iptables-allports
logpath  = %(syslog_authpriv)s


[xinetd-fail]

banaction = iptables-multiport-log
logpath   = %(syslog_daemon)s
maxretry  = 2


# stunnel - need to set port for this
[stunnel]

logpath = /var/log/stunnel4/stunnel.log


[ejabberd-auth]

port    = 5222
logpath = /var/log/ejabberd/ejabberd.log


[counter-strike]

logpath = /opt/cstrike/logs/L[0-9]*.log
# Firewall: http://www.cstrike-planet.com/faq/6
tcpport = 27030,27031,27032,27033,27034,27035,27036,27037,27038,27039
udpport = 1200,27000,27001,27002,27003,27004,27005,27006,27007,27008,27009,27010,27011,27012,27013,27014,27015
action  = %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-tcp, port="%(tcpport)s", protocol="tcp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-tcp]
           %(banaction)s[name=%(__name__)s-udp, port="%(udpport)s", protocol="udp", chain="%(chain)s", actname=%(banaction)s-udp]

# consider low maxretry and a long bantime
# nobody except your own Nagios server should ever probe nrpe
[nagios]

enabled  = false
logpath  = %(syslog_daemon)s     ; nrpe.cfg may define a different log_facility
maxretry = 1


[oracleims]
# see "oracleims" filter file for configuration requirement for Oracle IMS v6 and above
enabled = false
logpath = /opt/sun/comms/messaging64/log/mail.log_current
maxretry = 6
banaction = iptables-allports

[directadmin]
enabled = false
logpath = /var/log/directadmin/login.log
port = 2222

[portsentry]
enabled  = false
logpath  = /var/lib/portsentry/portsentry.history
maxretry = 1

gThis is the error that I get when I try to start fail2ban

Job for fail2ban.service failed. See 'systemctl status fail2ban.service' and 'journalctl -xn' for details. 

and this is the error that I have when I type systemctl status fail2ban.service

 Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/fail2ban.service; enabled)
   Active: failed (Result: start-limit) since Sun 2015-02-01 17:20:19 CET; 50s ago
     Docs: man:fail2ban(1)
  Process: 18318 ExecStop=/usr/bin/fail2ban-client stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 19570 ExecStart=/usr/bin/fail2ban-client -x start (code=exited, status=255)
 Main PID: 18304 (code=killed, signal=TERM)

in /var/log/fail2ban.log doesn't appear any error

Any tips for fix this problem? Thank you

closed as off-topic by HopelessN00b Mar 1 '15 at 18:10

  • This question does not appear to be about server, networking, or related infrastructure administration within the scope defined in the help center.
If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

up vote 8 down vote accepted

You must verify that each of the services you enabled has a log file that matches what fail2ban is expecting.

For example:

sshd has a logfile defined in fail2ban as:

logpath = %(sshd_log)s

which further maps to:

sshd_log = %(syslog_authpriv)s

and then depends on a specific distro file like

paths-fedora.conf:syslog_authpriv = /var/log/secure

If the file is not found, fail2ban won't start. If you know where the file is then just edit manually the logpath line and that will fix your problem.

  • solved by setting backend = systemd – Cedric Simon Feb 7 '16 at 20:59

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