Although the concept is similar (take a bunch of disks and act like it's one storage device), they actually function on a different level. JBOD runs close to the hardware, often as part of a disk controller configuration. Microsoft's storage pools run on the OS level.
To illustrate this point: suppose you have a server with JBOD configured on the RAID controller. You can run any OS on that bunch of disks and every OS will happily communicate with that bunch, as long as the controller is supported by that OS. On the other hand, if you configure those disks as a storage pool, only Microsoft Windows will know what to do with it and other OS's can't use that storage pool.
Also see this Microsoft TechNet blog.