The distribution only requires you to provision a hostname as the origin. As long as that hostname happens to be able to route traffic to your origin, CloudFront doesn't need to have an awareness of what specifically it is or how it works. (The exception is when the origin is S3.)
For that host, you'd use essentially what you're using now, but on the back side of CloudFront -- latency-based routing on the hostname you configure as the origin server, the back-end destination that CloudFront uses to access the origin. Each CloudFront edge location resolves that hostname independently in DNS and should receive responses most appopriate for the particular CloudFront edge location's physical location.
CloudFront, as you likely know, already georaphically routes incoming request to the nearest edge location using DNS, so your users will be hitting an edge location near them, and then CloudFront will be using the latency-based answer from Route 53, to access the most proximate regional system in your setup.