Is there an environment variable to set the temporary directory on debian based systems?

I have a java applet that uses that environement variable and it's getting confused when launching two instances of the same applet.


I am unsure if the java applet will actually look at the environment variables before it starts, but what you can do it edit /etc/profile and add the following lines:

if [[ -O /home/$USER/tmp && -d /home/$USER/tmp ]]; then
        # You may wish to remove this line, it is there in case
        # a user has put a file 'tmp' in there directory or a
        rm -rf /home/$USER/tmp 2> /dev/null
        mkdir -p /home/$USER/tmp
        TMPDIR=$(mktemp -d /home/$USER/tmp/XXXX)



To make it a true tmp directory (as in the files go away when the session is ended, you'll want to edit the user's .bash_logout as well as the skeleton .bash_logout (/etc/skel/.bash_logout) to include the following:

if [ -O $TMPDIR && -d $TMPDIR ]; then
        rm -rf $TMPDIR/*

The logout portion is dangerous is the variable doesn't get set and your logged in as root! I wouldn't add this to the root account or anyone that is a member of the wheel group! Proceed at your own caution.

  • 3
    I wouldn't put the cleanup into .bash_logout at all - what happens if they open up two sessions and log out of one? Use tmpwatch. :) – MikeyB Oct 10 '09 at 4:19
  • That is a much better cleanup solution, thanks for adding that. :) – TrueDuality Oct 16 '09 at 12:34
  • NB: the tmpwatch command does not exists on BSD (e.g. OSX) version of unix, for anyone going for portability. My CentOS boxes have it though. :) – Cometsong Nov 29 '18 at 14:44

The file you are looking for is:


You have to set the TEMP variable like:

  • 3
    And even export TEMP=/home/user/tmp – Fedir RYKHTIK Jun 27 '14 at 15:06
  • @Fedir that is in the shell, yes. – cstamas Jul 2 '14 at 19:33

If you want /home/user/tmp to be cleaned on reboot, I suggest you add an @reboot job to the user's personal crontab.


In C, I would use the tmpfile() call for a posix system, which would avoid the collision. So I would look for a similar Java call before trying to implement it myself, if you haven't already.

  • This assumes he is the one developing the application – TrueDuality Oct 9 '09 at 15:00
  • TrueDuality: Ah, my mistake – Kyle Brandt Oct 9 '09 at 15:17
  • 1
    Java has java.io.File.createTempFile. Now with added secure RNG. – Tom Hawtin - tackline Oct 13 '09 at 0:20

Java uses the system property java.io.tmpdir to configure the temporary directory. A reasonable JRE will set that to a sensible value based on the system if not explicitly specified.


For me this worked when i was trying to install a jar file using java.

export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-Djava.io.tmpdir=/apps/prod/tmp"

I use a Red Hat Linux. /apps/prod/tmp being the new folder.



export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-Djava.io.tmpdir=<local path>"


export _JAVA_OPTIONS="-Djava.io.tmpdir=/home/user/tmp"

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