I am working on a big company with 2 Backbone routers (ARS9K) and 200+ switches (Cisco, D-link, Tp-Link and etc.). Lets say that I know an exact MAC address of a device, but I do not know to which of 200 switches is it connected to. Ho can I find it out? Thanks
If you have administrative access to these switches, then you can login and use the integrated debug tool to track down the port on which the required MAC is seen / from which is coming.
However if you can't login into the switches, you simply can't, from the client alone, tell what switches forwarded the packets. At most, carefully analyzing the RTT times, you can rebuild a (very) vague topology (eg: how many switches forwarded the packets), nothing more.