When specifying servers, like (I would assume) many engineers who aren't experts in storage, I'll generally play it safe (and perhaps be a slave to marketing) by standardising on a minimum of 10k SAS drives (and therefore are "enterprise"-grade with a 24x7 duty cycle, etc) for "system" data (usually OS and sometimes apps), and reserve the use of 7.2k mid/nearline drives for storage of non-system data where performance isn't a significant factor. This is all assuming 2.5" (SFF) disks, as 3.5" (LFF) disks are only really relevant for high-capacity, low IOPs requirements.

In situations where there isn't a massive amount of non-system data, I'll generally place it on the same disks/array as the system data, meaning the server only has 10k SAS drives (generally a "One Big RAID10" type of setup these days). Only if the size of the non-system data is significant do I usually consider putting it on a separate array of 7.2k mid/nearline disks to keep the cost/GB down.

This has lead me to wonder: in some situations, could those 10k disks in the RAID10 array have been replaced with 7.2k disks without any significant negative consequences? In other words, am I sometimes over-spec'ing (and keeping the hardware vendors happy) by sticking to a minimum of 10k "enterprise" grade disks, or is there a good reason to always stick to that as a minimum?

For example, take a server that acts as a hypervisor with a couple of VMs for a typical small company (say 50 users). The company has average I/O patterns with no special requirements. Typical 9-5, Mon-Fri office, with backups running for a couple of hours a night. The VMs could perhaps be a DC and a file/print/app server. The server has a RAID10 array with 6 disks to store all the data (system and non-system data). To my non-expert eye, it looks as though mid/nearline disks may do just fine. Taking HP disks as an example:

  • Workload: Midline disks are rated for <40% workload. With the office only open for 9 hours a day and average I/O during that period unlikely to be anywhere near maximum, it seems unlikely workload would go over 40%. Even with a couple of hours of intense I/O at night for backups, my guess is it would still be below 40%
  • Speed: Although the disks are only 7.2k, performance is improved by spreading it across six disks

So, my question: is it sensible to stick a minimum of 10k SAS drives, or are 7.2k midline/nearline disks actually more than adequate in many situations? If so, how do I gauge where the line is and avoid being a slave to ignorance by playing it safe?

My experience is mostly with HP servers, so the above may have a bit an HP slant to it, but I would assume the principles are fairly vendor independent.

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    SFF 7.2k midline disks make no sense because of capacity and duty limitations. If you're talking about HP equipment (my specialty), 900GB and 1.2TB 10k SAS drives will be the best option if you're not using SSDs. If you are in the US, 900GB SAS should be ~$300-400 if you have a good vendor.
    – ewwhite
    Jan 18, 2016 at 0:44
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    Minor grammatical complaint: if you say "substitute X for Y", that implies you had Y to start with and are replacing it with X.
    – pjc50
    Jan 18, 2016 at 12:07
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    Sure you live in 2015? Because since some years my OS drive is a small SSD (saves power etc.) and I would not touch any HD for high performance either.
    – TomTom
    Jan 18, 2016 at 17:48
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    @TomTom No, I'm in 2016 :) In all seriousness, I've not really considered it. As I said in my post, I'll generally go for a "one big RAID 10" approach these days, so the OS will go on there. Separating out the OS onto a separate SSD seems wasteful if it's not really necessary. I'd be interested to hear your thoughts. Would you use a single SSD or a mirrored pair? Perhaps this would make a good SF question by itself...
    – dbr
    Jan 18, 2016 at 19:37
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    Mirrored pair for OS. HP even sell OS/boot-specific SSDs.
    – ewwhite
    Jan 18, 2016 at 19:47

3 Answers 3


There's an interesting intersection of server design, disk technology and economics here:

Also see: Why are Large Form Factor (LFF) disks still fairly prevalent?

  • The move toward dense rackmount and small form-factor servers. E.g. you don't see many tower offerings anymore from the major manufacturers, whereas the denser product lines enjoy more frequent revisions and have more options/availability.
  • Stagnation in 3.5" enterprise (15k) disk development - 600GB 15k 3.5" is about as large as you can go.
  • Slow advancement in 2.5" near line (7.2k) disk capacities - 2TB is the largest you'll find there.
  • Increased availability and lower pricing of high capacity SSDs.
  • Storage consolidation onto shared storage. Single-server workloads that require high capacity can sometimes be serviced via SAN.
  • The maturation of all-flash and hybrid storage arrays, plus the influx of storage startups.

The above are why you generally find manufacturers focusing on 1U/2U servers with 8-24 2.5" disk drive bays.

3.5" disks are for low-IOPs high-capacity use cases (2TB+). They're best for external storage enclosures or SAN storage fronted by some form of caching. In enterprise 15k RPM speeds, they are only available up to 600GB.

2.5" 10k RPM spinning disks are for higher IOPS needs and are generally available up to 1.8TB capacity.

2.5" 7.2k RPM spinning disks are a bad call because they offer neither capacity, performance, longevity nor price advantages. E.g. The cost of a 900GB SAS 10k drive is very close to that of a 1TB 7.2k RPM SAS. Given the small price difference, the 900GB drive is the better buy. In the example of 1.8TB 10k SAS versus 2.0TB 7.2k SAS, the prices are also very close. The warranties are 3-year and 1-year, respectively.

So for servers and 2.5" internal storage, use SSD or 10k. If you need capacity needs and have 3.5" drive bays available internally or externally, use 7.2k RPM.

For the use cases you've described, you're not over-configuring the servers. If they have 2.5" drive bays, you should really just be using 10k SAS or SSD. The midline disks are a lose on performance, capacity, have a significantly shorter warranty and won't save much on cost.

  • Thanks for taking the time to put this together. I'll have a chance to give it some proper thought tomorrow. Just having a quick look at prices, it looks like about a 30% jump between the 1TB 7.2k and 900GB 10k, which isn't massive (I'm in the UK if it matters). Could possibly be a factor if you're on a tight budget though where you're trying to make reasonable savings in several places and disk selection is just one of them. I'd be interested to hear what you think about the question from a purely technical perspective too.
    – dbr
    Jan 18, 2016 at 1:16
  • From a technical perspective, there's no advantage to a 7200 RPM 2.5" disk. If the costs seem too far off, keep shopping. There's little difference in this market. If this is for boot disk purposes, SSD is a good alternative. But I can't think of any reason I'd use an HP 7200 2.5" disk in a server today. Also, read your HP quickspecs closely. Midline drive have shorter warranties.
    – ewwhite
    Jan 18, 2016 at 1:27
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    In general this answer is great. But like with anything else, "it depends." In the example of a 900GB 10k vs 1TB 7200 disk, the 1TB disk will run cooler and therefore perhaps last longer, and will be less expensive. If you don't need the additional performance, then it's a waste of money, both the original capital cost and operations. For one server, it doesn't matter much. For 10, it starts to add up.
    – Dan Pritts
    Jan 18, 2016 at 4:33
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    Really the disk that run slower will last longer? Any article I am missing?
    – vasin1987
    Jan 18, 2016 at 10:29
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    From a vendor/manufacturer's perspective, yes. They are steering you to 10k and SSD for 2.5". If you were white-boxing, go 7200 RPM. In fact, my ZFS storage vendor, PogoStorage, use 7200 RPM 2.5" for their ZFS arrays because the caching and SSD tiering eliminate the need to spec faster disks.
    – ewwhite
    Jan 18, 2016 at 19:53

There are at least a few things that could cause problems with SOME drive types:

  • Drives that are not meant to deal with the vibration load of a chassis having many drives (unlikely problem with any drive specified as RAID/NAS-capable)

  • Firmware that does not allow TLER, or needs time-consuming manual reconfiguration of the drive to enable it (ditto)

  • Drives that have never been tested with the RAID controller used, and might have unrecognized bugs that surface in such a setup

  • Internal drive write caches that behave in a way (physical writing is out of order or very delayed) that causes a lot of confusion in case of a hard shutdown (RAID controller should be configured to force these OFF. Potential problem if firmware should ever ignore that. See untested drives :)

  • Drive might do internal maintenance routines occasionally that could make the drive behave slowly, or respond with enough delay, to make the RAID controller think it failed (related to TLER)

  • SATA in general, as it is usually implemented, has less safeguards compared to SAS against a drive with completely shot or hung electronics hanging everything on the controller (not a theoretical risk, certain disk+controller brand combinations love that failure mode).

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    These seem like reasons to use drives qualified with the server hardware and application stack, but not specifically about 10k vs 7k2 rpm.
    – poolie
    Jan 18, 2016 at 16:22
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    The question can easily be (mis?)understood for "can a non-enterprise 7.2k disk, or one designated for single-drive enterprise use, be used in the application?". And "safely" would usually imply addressing risks of data loss or failure related downtime. Jan 18, 2016 at 16:31

HUGE issue:

(May be a teeny bit off-topic - but I'ts imporant!)

When you are dealing with SSDs - (as is often the case, or may be either the case or temptation) - a lot of SSDs have a nasty problem where they cannot always recover from spontaneous power outages!

This is a tiny problem with HDDs. HDDs usually have enough capacitance to power their logic and enough angular momentum to carry the platters through finishing off writing a 512-byte block - in the event that power is lost mid-write. Once in a rare while, this will not work, resulting in something called a "torn write" - where a single block may be partially written. The partial write (albiet rare) will cause a checksum failure on the block - i.e. that individual block will be bad. This can usually be detected as bad by the disk circuitry itself, and corrected by the upstream RAID controller.

SSDs are a different animal. The usually implement something called "wear leveling" - where they don't just write "block X" to a physical location for "block X" like a HDD does. Instead, they try to write to difference places on the flash media - and they try to aggregate or combined writes (using a bit of buffering). Writing to the different places involves keeping a "map" of where things are written, which is also buffered and written out in a manner meant to reduce wear leveling. Part of the wear leveling even can involve moving data that's already on the device and hasn't even been recently written.

This problem is that when the SSD loses power - it has a lot of data in memory (unflushed), it has some data that has been written out to different/changed locations - and it has these maps in it's own memory which need to be flushed out to make any sense of the strucuture of all the data on the device.

MANY SSDs do not have the logic or circuitry to be able to keep their controllers up and alive long enough on spontaneous-power-out to safely flush all this data to flash before it dies. This doesn't just mean that that one block you wrote could now be in jeprody - but other blocks - even all the blocks on the device could be in trouble. Many devices also have problems where they not only lose all the data on the device, but the device itself becomes bricked, and unusable.

This is all true theory - but (working in the storage industry) - I/we have seen this happen way too many times on way too many devices - including in some of our own, personal laptops!

Many vendors have discussed making "enterprise grade SSDs" where the specifically add devices ("super-caps") and other circuitry to allow a clean "flush" - but it's very very hard to find any device which specifically states as a part of it's datasheet that it has sufficient, explicit, tested protection from such events and will protect against such events.

Obviously if you buy a "high end storage array" from a top-tier vendor which utilized flash technology, either their drives - or their system on-whole has been designed with all this in account. Make sure it has!

The problem with respect to your question is: If you have a RAID array - and several of the disks are the "bad" SSDs without this protection - if you get a "spontaneous power outage" - you could lose ALL the data on MULTIPLE disks rendering RAID reconstruction impossible.

"But I use a UPS"

It is also generally important to note that "spontaneous power outage" can include situations like BSOD and kernel locks/crashes/panics - where you have no choice of recover by to pull the plug on the system.

  • 2
    It is rare that someone will pull the plug on a hung system (unless it is trashing the disk) quickly enough to not allow disks of any type to flush their caches. And in that case, conventional HDDs with enabled caches can produce the same mess, albeit with less chance of bricking but still with a significant chance of data corruption - Reiserfs, early NTFS, they tended to end up shot from that because they handled journal data being written for an activity that didn't actually happen (or vice versa, both likely with out of order cache flushing) VERY badly. Jan 19, 2016 at 0:44
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    A properly designed SSD won't corrupt or lose data in the event that data hasn't been fully flushed. As the physical location of each logical sector can change on every write, the previous version of the data in each logical sector should still exist in the event that the update has not been flushed yet. You can still lose data if the firmware suffers from design flaws or implementation bugs.
    – kasperd
    Jan 19, 2016 at 8:29
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    @kasperd consumer SSDs are sold on speed basis, they make compromises to do that. While it should be possible to maintain integrity the way you suggest, the fact is that most manufacturers drives (at least at consumer level) simply don't. Also when they reach EoL most don't fail gracefully.
    – JamesRyan
    Jan 19, 2016 at 11:19
  • @JamesRyan Stories about manufacturers cheating with the flushing of data to persistent storage in order to come out better in some performance metric are not new. We have heard about that happening also in the days of hard disks. It is not because this is what consumers want. It is because consumers only see some of the metrics and don't know how the manufacturer has been cheating in other areas to achieve it. Sometimes manufacturers get away with cheating, sometimes they don't. (I'm sure somebody could come up with a car analogy inspired by recent news.)
    – kasperd
    Jan 19, 2016 at 12:06
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    SSDs are a different animal. They have map tables that tell WHERE the data is. They are moving and relocating data and adjusting these maps. They NEED to coalesce their writes (i.e defer, bunch them up & write later) to avoid write amplification. The maps themselves can't be written to aggressively and need to follow these same rules. We can about "proper designs" and flaws - but SSDs aren't a "simple" as journled filesystems (which aren't simple). I'm speaking from a LOT of experience, testing, specifications and I may or may not have spoken to a manufacturer - or two - or three in my job.
    – Brad
    Jan 19, 2016 at 14:31

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