I've been using LetsEncrypt to generate certificates for my sites on Windows 2012 R2 server. It worked great, until recently when I renewed the certificates.

LetsEncrypt made a recent change where they swapped the intermediate certificate with name "Let's Encrypt Authority X1" for one with name "Let's Encrypt Authority X3". The issue is, the authority key for the updated certificate remained the same.


So, when I renewed by server certificates, they now were issues by "X3" authority, however since the key was the same, Windows cert store seems to build the certificate chain with the first result it finds (alphabetically?) which turns out to be the old "X1" cert.

This is where the problem arises. For some clients/browsers (like Chrome), this is fine, they only look at the key for the intermediate certificate. However, other clients are more strict and also check the name, and then fail (X1 instead of X3).

My first step to fixing this was to remove the X1 intermediate certificate, and make sure all my server certificates were updated to be issued by X3. Now things look correct, at least in the certificate store in Windows (the chain correctly shows Root Authority -> X3 -> server cert).

The problem I'm stuck on now, and can't seem to figure out, is why clients continue to display the wrong certificate chain (X1). That intermediate certificate doesn't even exist on my server anymore that I can see.

I've tried the usual rebooting server, and also stumbled upon this similar post, tried the steps there a few times without any luck -


Any clue what I could be missing? There seems to be some problem with IIS caching certificate chains, since I've tried connecting on multiple clients/machines and all have the same problem. Just have no clue how to clear this "cert chain cache", or if it even exists.

  • It could be your clients caching (although you've used multiple clients!). If you can, run openssl s_client <servername>:443 against your IIS server (without the < and > symbols) which will show you the Distinguished Names (and more) of the certificates being sent by your IIS server. You'll need to scroll up to the first few lines of the command output. – garethTheRed Mar 31 '16 at 14:45
  • I've used multiple clients, as well as multiple machines (one of which has never hit the site before now). So, doesn't seem a client-side issue. When I run OpenSSL it shows that the intermediate certificate being presented is still X1. – David Mar 31 '16 at 16:01
  • And who signed your end-entity certificate? Was it X1 or X3? The new Letsencrypt subordinate CA certificate (X3) has a new name so is a completely new certificate as far as chain-building is concerned - it shouldn't get confused with X1. That would simply break PKI :-) – garethTheRed Apr 1 '16 at 6:38
  • The end-entity cert is signed by X3. Well, that's kind of the root of the issue right? It seems like Windows doesn't care about name changes, it only look at the authority key. :( I just don't know how it is even building the chain with X1 at this point though, since it is no longer in my cert store. – David Apr 1 '16 at 16:19
  • No - Windows, just like every other client, needs to Distinguished Name of the issuer (the CA) to be in the Issuer field of the certificate. End of, no ifs or buts, period. It also needs the public key of the issuer to be matched with the private key that signed the certificate. Change either the key-pair or the DN and it's a different certificate. Clients that uses Microsoft's CAPI (this includes Chrome on Windows) will use the certificate's AIA field to find the correct subordinate CA certificate, while Mozilla based products won't. This may be why you're seeing different results? – garethTheRed Apr 2 '16 at 8:58

I've just gone through this issue on my server. This was on 2008R2.

  1. Ensure all certs are using the new intermediate certificate as we're going to remove the old one
  2. Remove X1 intermediate cert from the local computer and all local user accounts
  3. Remove the secure binding in IIS for each certificate
  4. Re-add each of the secure bindings in IIS

There maybe some additional issues for 2012R2, there's a solution posted at https://community.letsencrypt.org/t/iis-8-5-building-incorrect-chain-with-lets-encrypt-authority-x3/13320/84 that quite a few people are reporting to work

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  • I actually had forgotten I posted this question. I did end up getting things working a while back with the solution by Knagis in that thread you linked, specifically this post - community.letsencrypt.org/t/… – David May 26 '16 at 14:33
  • It's important for answers to be saved as it creates a nice repository of searchable solutions, which is why I added my answer after suffering the same issue. Thanks for coming back and accepting it @David – Ginji May 27 '16 at 1:06
  • For me, it was exactly the intermediate X1 cert in the user account "not the local account". Thank you. – Shadi Namrouti Jun 4 '16 at 17:22

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