I fixed the problem by deleting the Microsoft.OSTCExtensions.LinuxDiagnostic extension. The steps I took where:
Start the VM even though it says there was an error. If I tired to remove the extension before starting the VM I got the following error:
Failed to delete the virtual machine extension 'Microsoft.Insights.VMDiagnosticsSettings'. Error: OperationNotAllowed: Cannot modify extensions in the VM when the VM is not running.
When starting the VM I still got the original error message:
Failed to start virtual machine 'some-vm'. Error: No version found in the artifact repository that satisfies the requested version '2.0' for VM extension with publisher 'Microsoft.OSTCExtensions' and type 'LinuxDiagnostic'.
Once the VM is started delete the extension via the Azure website in the Extensions menu. Then click the uninstall. The uninstall can take a couple minutes, let it do it's thing. In my case I also deleted the VMAccessForLinux Extension.
- I stopped the VM then restarted it and now I can SSH into it.
Thanks to Ryan for his tip about removing diagnostics. That lead me on the correct path of deleting the extension. GordonB, I thought about having the delete the VM and re-create it but that was my last resort option.
I didn't install these extensions, I'm assuming they where installed when I created the VM a year or so ago. Does anyone have any idea why the extensions suddenly stopped working? Thanks.