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I have a new Windows Server 2012 Azure Virtual Machine. Everything works fine through RD until I try to access from outside. I cannot access SQL Server service (I gave up after 1 hour of trying everything, thinking I messed something up with SQL Server service). Later, I found out even the web port (80) does not work as well!

Here are my Firewall status and Network monitor (you can see port 80 and 1433 is Allowed and Not Restricted):

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I tried to telnet to either 80 or 1433, but neither works. However, telnet to the same IP Address to port 3389 works. The error message is:

Could not open connection to the host, on port 1433: Connect failed

Is there any config I need to do?

Note: I already add a website in IIS, binding to both a domain and the VM IP Address too, but accessing both fail, nothing works.

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You need to open endpoints for the services you want to make accessible from the Internet. In the old Azure portal these are listed under Endpoints. In the new portal under Inbound Security Rules.

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    Thanks! The setting (Inbound Security Rules) is accessed NOT from from the VM settings, but its Network Security Group (which can be accessed from the Resource Group of your VM). If you have some time, do you mind explaining why this thing exist when we already have Windows Firewall? Anything bad if I just allow all in Network Security Group, and let Windows Firewall take care of it instead? – DatVM Jul 19 '16 at 22:02
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    For the same reason we have network firewalls protecting internal systems in addition to the OS firewall. The Windows Firewall works perfectly fine but I wouldn't trust an OS firewall as the only thing between my internal systems and the people who would seek to access and compromise them. Security is best implemented in multiple layers. – joeqwerty Jul 20 '16 at 3:33
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    An analogy I like to use is that of a bank. It may not be completely accurate, but it makes the point. The bank walls are made of tamper resistant material. The doors and windows are locked and secured. The doors and windows are fitted with alarm systems. The vault is locked and secured. The safety deposit boxes are secured. Using only the OS firewall is analogous to leaving the doors, windows and vault of the bank open, unlocked and unarmed. The "bad guys" have easy and free access to the safety deposit boxes with only a simple lock preventing them from accessing the contents. – joeqwerty Jul 20 '16 at 3:37

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